post-classical trading cities and alliances

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Transcript post-classical trading cities and alliances

Five Themes of Geography
A.P. Themes
Interactions and Interconnections
• War
• Trade
• Exchanges
• Urban Trading Societies
• Syncretism
A.P. Skills
Compare and Contrast
Change and Continuities
The Baltic and North Seas
Scandinavia including Finland
Poland and Baltic States
Russia: Novgorod and Pskov
Northern Germany
Eastern Indian Ocean
Horn of Africa – Somalia
East Africa –Kenya, Tanzania
South Africa – Mozambique
Islands of Zanzibar, Comoros
Common Element
Urban Cultures
The Cog
Central to the success of the Hanseatic
League was the cog. Although the Norse
had elegant and seaworthy vessels, they
had too small a carrying capacity to
satisfy the Hanseatic merchants. What
emerged to fill this need was the cog, a
simple, rugged, double ended, clinker
built ship with a single mast amidships
and setting a single square sail on a yard.
The Dhow
A dhow is a traditional Arab sailing
vessel with one or more lateen sail. It
was (is) primarily used along the coasts
of the Arabia, India, and East Africa. A
larger dhow may have a crew of
approximately thirty while smaller
dhows have crews typically ranging
around twelve. For navigation, dhow
sailors have used the kamal. This device
determines latitude by finding the angle
of Polaris above the horizon.
Polynesian immigrants settle parts, introduce bananas
Egyptians and Sabaeans
Egypt referred to the area as Punt
• Documentary evidence of trade between Egypt, Punt
• Hatshepshut’s expedition to the area is quite famous
• Products were spices, gold, ivory, animals, slaves
Indigenous Semitics Civilization in Southern Yemen
• Called Sabaeans: created dams, terraced agriculture
• Cities connected by trade to SW Asia
• Specialize in gold, frankincense, myrrh
Semitic Sabaeans settle along Ethiopian coasts, highlands
Civilization arose in Axum: records, coinage, monuments
Great power mentioned in Greek, Roman, Persian records
Controlled Bab-el Mandeb straits
3rd Century conversion to Monophysite Christianity (Coptic)
In decline after rise of Islam in Red Sea, Arabian Sea
Romans and Greek
Both knew of region: Greeks called it Periplus, Romans called area Azania
Greek, Roman, and Persian coins of 3rd century CE found in area
Three Movements Converge
Bantu Migration Down East African Coast
Arabic Merchants Along East African Coast
Polynesians of Indian Ocean
Bantu Migration
Introduces cattle, iron, slash-burn agriculture
Bantu exploit resources of gold, ivory, copper
Bantu’s begin to cultivate yams, bananas
Settlements coast, natural harbors, islands, rivers
Muslim Arab merchants
Arabs Muslims trade for slaves, gold, ivory
Link East Africa to wider Indian Ocean, Muslims
Arab merchants take Bantu wives
Mixed families link interior Bantu, coastal Arabs
Trade Winds
Monsoon winds dictate all movement
November to April: Asians can arrive
April to October: Swahili go to India
Imports and Exports
Ivory, gold were key exports for East Africa
Finished goods were imported especially cloth, blue dyes
Slaves increased in importance after 17th century plantations
Cosmas Indicopleustes, Greek merchant, 6th century CE
"They take with them to the mining district oxen, lumps of slate, and iron, and when they reach
its neighborhood they make a halt at a certain spot and form an encampment, which they fence
round with a great hedge of thorn. Within this they live, and having slaughtered the oxen, cut
them in pieces, and lay the pieces on the top of the thorns, along with the lumps of salt and the
iron. Then come the natives bringing gold in nuggets like peas, called tancharas, and lay one or
two or more of these upon what pleases them - the pieces of flesh or the salt or the iron, and
then they retire to some distance off. Then the owner of the meat approaches and if he is
satisfied he takes the gold away, and upon seeing this its owner comes and takes the flesh or the
salt or the iron.“
The Periplus of the Erithraean Sea, a Greek Sailors’ Guide from
Alexandria, Egypt, c. 100 CE
"Two days' sail beyond the island lies the last mainland market
town of Azania, which is called Rhapta, a name derived from the
small sewn boats the people use. Here there is much ivory and
tortoiseshell. Men of the greatest stature, who are pirates, inhabit
the whole coast and at each place have set up chiefs.“
From Compendium of Knowledge by the Chinese Confucian scholar,
Tuan Ch'eng-shih, 8th century CE
"From of old this country has not been subject to any foreign
power. In fighting they use elephant's tusks, ribs and wild cattle's
horns as spears, and they have corselets and bows and arrows.
They have twenty myriads of foot-soldiers. The Arabs are
continually making raids on them.“
Swahili is actually a language
Comes from Arabic “Sahel swahili”
• Means dwellers of the coast
• Bantu speakers borrowed loan words from Arabic
Came to symbolize a culture along East Africa
Bantu arrived in 1st millennium CE
Settled coasts
Muslims, Indians discovered wealth of area
8th Century CE
Settlement Shirazi Arabs from the Persian Gulf
Small settlements of Sindi Indians
El Zanj: Land of the Blacks
Coastal areas come under the control of Arab Muslims
Muslims controlled coast from cities along strategic harbors
Northern Swahili: Mogadishu, Pate, Zanzibar, Malindi, Kilwa
Southern Swahili: Sofala pushed inland up to Zimbabwe, Mozambique
Swahili City-States
Muslim and cosmopolitan
Mix of Bantu, Islamic, and Indian influences
All politically independent of one another
Never a Swahili empire or hegemony control
Trade and Economics
Cities like competitive companies, corporations vying for African trade
Chief exports: ivory, sandalwood, ebony, and gold; later slaves
Trade linked to both Arabia and India; even Chinese goods, influence reached area
Social Construct
Arabs, Persians were significant players in the growth of Swahili civilization
Cities were run by a nobility that was African in origin
Below nobility: commoners, resident foreigners made up a large part of the citizenry
Large group of artisans, weavers, craftsmen
Slavery was actively practiced
The sixteenth century
Advent of Portuguese trade disrupted trade routes, made commercial centers obsolete
Portuguese allowed native Africans no share in African trade
Set about conquering the Islamic city-states along the eastern coast
The late seventeenth century
Oman (in the south of Arabia) conquered the Portuguese cities along the coast
Eastern African coast controlled by Omani sultanate for another two hundred years
Cotton, cloves, plantation agriculture thrived and used slaves for labor
European Imperialism: Germany, Portugal, Italy, Britain split control of Swahili lands
Swahili Garden Cities
Built around palaces, mosques
Walled Cities
Many markets, harbors
• Built homes within walls
• Endowed mosques, schools
Wandering Muslims, Sufis create madrasas attached to mosques
Climate led to creation of gardens
Muslims transplanted many different plants, crops to area
Gaspar Correa, sailor and mercenary describing Vasco da Gama's
arrival in Kilwa, 16th century
"The city comes down to the shore, and is entirely surrounded by a wall and towers, within
which there are maybe 12,000 inhabitants. The country all round is very luxurious with many
trees and gardens of all sorts of vegetables, citrons, lemons, and the best sweet oranges that
were ever seen… The streets of the city are very narrow, as the houses are very high, of three
and four stories, and one can run along the tops of them upon the terraces… and in the port
there were many ships. A moor ruled over this city, who did not possess more country than the
city itself.“
Called Mwenemutapa
dzimba dza mabwe = houses of stone
dzimba woye = venerated houses, describes a chief's house or grave.
dzimbahwe = court, home or grave of chief
Bantu-speaking people in Southeastern Africa
South of Zambezi River, North of Limpopo River
Migrated from East Africa
Brought iron smelting, agriculture, cattle-raising
Importance of Gold and Red-Gold (Copper)
Area rich in both medals
Easily mined and obtained
Traded downriver to the coasts
Great Zimbabwe
Centralized state around 1300 CE
Huge fortification surrounded by stone walls
Dominated the Zambezi river valley
Influence of Sofala
Swahili coastal town in modern Mozambique
Dominated trade in the Mozambique Channel
Became the conduit for Zimbabwean gold to Indian Ocean
Supplied Zimbabwe with Arab, Indian, Chinese goods
Trade Changes History
Wealth led to centralization of Zimbabwean government
Original ruler-priests replaced by military-economic kinship
Islam, Swahili culture made no impact on region
The Amber Route of the Greeks
Largest world deposits in Baltic (Prussia)
Greeks spoke of route to Mediterranean
Keltic peoples in area participated in trade
Germanic and Viking Migrations
• Goths moved from Gotland to mainland
– Displaced Balts, Scythians
– Settled southern shores of Baltic
• Germans traded with each other, Mediterranean region
• Arian missionaries active in area, convert many Germanic tribes
Viking Age
• Vikings were active traders, explorers
• Viking settlements attracted merchants, markets
• Vikings establish trade routes throughout area
Charlemagne and The Church
Charlemagne subdues the Saxons
• Incorporates areas into Frankish Empire
• Establishes aristocratic hierarchy
• Establishes church hierarchy
Church sends in missionaries to the area
Christian bishops established sees
Sees build on existing settlements
Conversions follow
Monasteries established
Ottonian kings establish Holy Roman Empire
Church hierarchy facilitated rise of cities around cathedrals
Cathedrals, church had need for artisans, services leading to rise of marketplaces
Few natural resources along coasts short of fish, salt, timber, pitch, tar
Cities developed large merchant classes, specialists outside feudal society
Rise of Imperial Cities: aristocrats, kings began granting charters to German cities
Cities began to exercise political control over own affairs: regulate city life
German cities assist emperors in eastern push along Baltic; granted privileges
Rise of Guilds (Hansa) in German cities
Established contacts with other guilds in other towns
Sought sources of timber, pitch, tar, wax, resins, furs,
Began to move rye, wheat, salt, fish, honey
Role of Visby (Gotland)
Germans traded under flag of Gotland
Journeyed throughout Baltic especially to Novgorod
Extreme competition of merchants led to conflict, rules
Germans began to build German cities to control trade
Forming of The Hansa
Lubeck founded in 1159
Controlled transshipment across Jutland
Granted status as imperial city
Became Queen of Baltic Hansa 1227
Hamburg controlled trade in Northern Germany to west of Elbe, Baltic
Already had system of alliances with German, Flemish, Dutch cities
Formal Diet and Treaty signed in 1356
More than 100 cities participated although few formally joined Hanseatic Diet
Formed alliance with Hamburg in 1241
Hamburg and Lubeck cooperated in alliances, with other cities
Established kontors or factories in area; became trading enclaves
Exchanges goods of Baltic with cloth, linens, manufactured goods of England, Netherlands
Member states adopted uniform Lubeck law code: heavily commercial
Alliance State Structure
Hansa Diet
Treaties, Wars, Diplomacy
Economic Regulations, Coinage
Used Law Code of Lubeck as common law
Local State Structure
Imperial Cities owing allegiance to emperor
Charter from emperor established rights
Fiercely guarded rights against princes, bishops
Town Hall often imposing structure
Councils run cities
City patricians run councils
Patricians were masters of guilds
Guilds regulated neighborhoods
Labor Structures: Guilds, Monopoly, Mercantilism
Regulated all aspects of manufacture, trade
Extreme hierarchy with masters, apprentices, journeymen
Cooperate within cities and between cities
Set prices, limited competition
Some guilds higher than others
Socialized within specific guilds
Marriages usually within guilds
Some guilds admitted women
Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor, 1188, one of the earliest references
to the liberties of Lübeck is found in the charter wherein he mentions
the rights given to that city by Henry, Duke of Saxony.
. . . For these reasons, in order that they may come and go freely with their wares
through the whole duchy of Saxony, free from hanse and thelony, except at
Ertheneborch, where they pay five denarii for wagons.... The Ruthenians, the
Gothlanders, the Northmen, and the other eastern peoples may come and go freely to
the oft-mentioned city without payment of thelony or hanse....
Waldemar the Victorious, King of Denmark, who controlled much of the Baltic
lands by reason of his conquests, was able to grant privileges in southern
Sweden, the center of the herring trade, to Lübeck, since Scania formed a part
of the Danish dominions, 1288
In ancient times King Waldemar granted to the city of Lübeck that its citizens could,
and should, at the markets at Skanör and Falsterbo, sell their wares, retail and
wholesale, and buy whatever might be found for sale there. Also that they elect there
any advocate they choose to judge all offenses and faults except those of "hand and
neck": and so this law has been faithfully observed throughout the past up to the
present day except for bla and blot, and this is beyond the jurisdiction of the citizens,
and of those who live by the law of the city. But everyone must give lawful thelony to
the officials of the lord King: they can sell cloth by the cubit; they can, also, sell other
things by weight, both besemer and punder and this for the reason that the said King
granted that such liberties should be observed in their free markets.
Started as independent or
Gained independence by power of the League
Such independence remained limited
• Hansa cities owed allegiance to the Emperor
• No intermediate tie to the local nobility
• No trade moved in Baltic without their permission
• States participate in trans-oceanic movements
Military = Ships, Armed Merchants
• Equipped to protect themselves
• Intimidate reluctant members, larger states
• Waged war against pirates
Hansa merchants, cities cliquish
Rise of nation states, modern cities threatened Hansa
Economic crises of 14th century wounded Hansa
Rise of Holland, Swedish Empire, Prussia destroyed Hansa
German Order (Teutonic Knights)
German hospitaler order found 1182 in Holy Land
13th Century switched activities to Baltic
1226: Launched Christianizing crusade against Prussia
Established military church state under imperial, papal jurisdiction
Waged war against Poland, Lithuania, Novgorod
Livonian Brotherhood
Sub-branch of German Order assimilated into Order
Conquered Latvia (Livonia), Estonia
Founded towns and encouraged immigration
Riga and Marienburg were centers of state
German monk/knights formed military elite
German nobles carved out large landed estates with serfs
German towns, burghers graded rights, autonomy
Free German peasants cleared land, planted crops
Local Prussians “Germanicized” and granted equal rights
Local Livonians, Ests, Lithuanians became serfs
Relationship to Hansa
All cities in area were members of Hansa
Settlers often came from Hansa
German order formed military alliance with Hansa
Economic wealth flowed through Hansa
Venice, Genoa and Amalfi
Southwest Asia
Southeast Asia
Cholan Empire
Srivijayan Empire
Central Asia
Definition: A trade diaspora is a dispersed ethnic community which exists in
different geographic locations and specializes in trade. They are often religious
minorities who are accorded certain protections by a state and perform many duties
for the rulers of that state including diplomacy and long-distance trade.
Influence: Ethnic and family bonds help maintain strong links of communication and
trust, as well as maintaining a kind of "brand" identity in relation to local peoples.
Most major trade entrepots allowed trading groups to rule themselves under their
own headmen. But traders also got involved in local politics through marriage and
official positions, thus overlapping with state sponsored trade. Trade diasporas often
introduced new ideas, faiths, and technologies into existing regions while assisting
the formation of new cultures and languages.
Venetians and Genoese in Mediterranean
Swahili merchants in East Africa
Hansa German merchants in Northern Europe
Jews in Mediterranean, SW Asia, Europe
Muslims in areas outside Muslim rule
Armenians in SW Asia
Nestorians in Central Asia
Fukien Chinese in South, East China Sea
Hausa people in the Sahel, West Africa
Old World Contacts
This tutorial focuses on the travelers of Eurasian and African history between 330 BCE
and 1500 CE. It introduces students to the agents of contact: the merchants, military
men, missionaries, and others who journeyed far from their homelands. It examines
the foreign items and ideas these people transported with them across the vast
landscape and surrounding seas of three continents. This tutorial explores how crosscultural contacts/exchanges affected the Old World's diverse cultural communities
through time.