Highway west Algeria
Highway west Algeria
Category 1- History, Government, and Citizenship
GEOGRAPHIC FACTORS AND HISTORICAL EVENTS
Historical events affect and are affected by physical and human geography
Spatial diffusion: spread of a phenomenon from its starting location
Native populations exhibited
use of gold and practiced native (non-Catholic) religions
Spain sent more conquistadors and missionaries to conquer and
convert natives. Natives forced to labor in mines.
Animals, plants, and disease in Europe were different
than those found in Latin America.
“Columbian Exchange” introduced new crops and animals to
both regions. Old World diseases killed millions of natives.
Small population available to provide labor for
production of sugar, gold, and other work.
Millions of Africans were forced to migrate to Latin America (onethird of all African slaves were sent to Brazil)
Ideals of American and French Revolutions spread in
Latin America. Spain and Portugal were occupied by
Latin American colonies initiated wars for independence. New
governments featured many authoritarian leaders (dictators)
with military backgrounds. (Juntas)
New independent nations were divided physically
(mountains, dense forests) and culturally.
Revolts with nations, wars between nations and coups d ḕtat
(government overthrows) were common.
These geographic factors and historical events had a lasting impact on Latin America. Unlike the U.S. former colonies did not
unite to form one country. Today, most Latin American countries have stable governments and cultures that combine, native,
European, and African elements.
Physical and Human Geography Over Time:
The physical and human characteristics of a place change over time.
Desertification is the degradation of land in arid, semi-arid, and dry sub-humid areas. It is caused primarily by human activities
and climatic variations.
The changing climate first attracted people to the Sahara as rainfall increased abruptly throughout the region
beginning about 10,500 years ago (8,500 BC). Then increasing drought drove them southward into the modern Sahel as
the rains became less frequent beginning about 7,200 years ago. By 5,500 years ago (3,500 BC) the Sahara had
returned to full desert conditions. It appears that many who left the Sahara settled in the Nile valley about 5,500 years
ago, setting the stage for the First Dynasty starting with the reign of King Narmer in 3,000 BC (5,000 years ago).
Example 1: The potato originated in the New World and with the
“Columbian Exchange” it spread across the globe. Potatoes were
extensively traded in the Andes before the European conquest. They
were grown at high elevations, and taken either as fresh tubers or as
chuño to other areas such as the coast. Potatoes were introduced into
Europe by returning Spanish conquistadors during the second half of the
16th century. The top producer for potatoes today is China. One-third of
all potatoes are produced in China and India. Russian Federation comes
in third, Ukraine in fourth, with the U.S. in fifth place.
Example 2: The spread of American pop culture items can be seen around the world.
These maps above show the spread globally of different items that are associated with
Voting Patterns and Political Boundaries
Maps that show election results or political
boundaries reveal how political power is distributed.
Category 1- History, Government, and Citizenship, continued
Changing Perceptions of Geographic Features
Societies change as people’s perceptions of geographic features shift
due to economic, technological, social, political or other changes.
Example 1: Clark County in Nevada did not attract many inhabitants
for centuries. Limited water resources, flooding, and the desert climate
limited development. Several changes shifted perceptions, resulting in
a population increase from around 4,000 in 1910 to near 2, 000, 000 in
• In 1936, Hoover Dam was completed (controls flooding, supplies
water and hydroelectric power, and creates attractive Lake Mead).
• In 1940’s, hotels and entertainment established tourism in Las
• In 1947, low-cost air conditioning window units became available.
Geographic Factors, National Power, and International Relations
A nation’s power to control territory and influence other nations is
affected by physical and human geographic factors.
270 needed to win
Electoral College map showing the results of the 2008
U.S. presidential election. Senator Barack Obama (D-IL)
won the popular vote in 28 states and the District of
Columbia (denoted in blue) to capture 365 electoral
votes. Senator John McCain (R-AZ) won the popular
vote in 22 states (denoted in red) to capture 173
electoral votes. Nebraska split its electoral vote when
Senator Obama won the electoral vote from Nebraska's
2nd congressional district; the state's other four
electoral votes went to Senator McCain.
Public Policy Development, Citizenship, and Point of
Local, state/provincial, national, international
governing bodies develop public policy. Different
points of view influence public policy.
Example: China’s one-child policy was implemented in
1978 to address overpopulation. Exceptions to the
policy were made for rural couples and for parents
with no siblings in response to their specific concerns.
Cultural beliefs affect citizenship practices and public
Example: Traditionally and economically, Chinese tend
to favor sons. Citizens used family planning methods
(often illegal) in response to the one-child policy. In
2000, the ratio of male to female births was 117:100.
Location: nations that connect with others to trade goods can
grow their economies more than physically or politically isolated
Example: Afghanistan is a poor country with a history of
It is landlocked in Asia at the crossroads of powerful, diverse
• Critical resources: economies depend on fuel, water, metals, and
other resources; nations that control these resources are more
Example: Iraq’s oil production increases it international status, as
other countries must build relationships with Iraq to buy its oil.
• Size: larger nations may have more resources and the potential for
a larger population compared to a smaller nation.
Example: China boasts the world’s largest population and its
growing economy is transforming China into a world superpower.
• Shape: compact nations can be easier to control and unify so that
resources can be focused on improvements; nations that share
borders or have well-defined (often natural) borders are
Example: Both the United Kingdom and Japan are relatively small
island nations that became very powerful by reforming
government, industrializing quickly, and building a strong army
Conflict, Cooperation, and Control
Conflict and cooperation are processes used to control Earth’s
Example 1: NAFTA is an agreement between Canada, U.S. and
Mexico that reduces or eliminates trade barriers among the
countries. The countries cooperate to create the largest trading
bloc in the world.
Example 2: OPEC is an
intergovernmental body of oil
exporting countries that hold 79%
of the world’s known reserves.
Cooperation benefits member
OPEC member nations
Example 3: Violent ethnic conflict from 1991-1995 divided the
former Yugoslavia, forming smaller nations.
Example 4: At Berlin Conference in 1884, European nations
cooperated to divide Africa into zones that each nation could
colonize it. The nations rushed to establish colonies, conflicting with
Africans if necessary to establish control. By 1902, 90% of Africa was
under European control.
Example 5: EU The European Union is a unique economic and
political partnership between 27 European countries.
It has delivered half a century of peace, stability, and prosperity,
helped raise living standards, launched a single European currency
(euro), and is progressively building a single Europe-wide market in
which people, goods, services, and capital move among Member
States as freely as within one country.
Example 6: Israel and Palestine In 1947, the United Nations voted in
favor of creating a Jewish state, but this proposal was rejected by
Arab leaders. When Israel declared its independence in 1948,
neighboring Arab states immediately declared war on Israel. Today,
after several wars and shifting borders, Israelis and Palestinians are
now debating the future borders of Israel and Palestine. One major
issue is whether a new Palestinian state should include some part of
the city of Jerusalem.
Example 7: United Nations is an organization of all the sovereign
nation states in the world. Founded after WWII, the aim of the
United Nations is to promote peace, prevent war and encourage
development in all nations. All members make up what is called the
General Assembly. A group of especially powerful states, including
the U.S., Russia, China, Britain and France, belong to the UN Security
Council. The Security Council has the power to send UN peacekeeping forces to areas of conflict around the world.
Category 2: Geography
PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT AND PHYSICAL PROCESSES
Earth’s physical environment or physical geography is often divided into four parts that can
be used to describe different regions on Earth:
• Lithosphere: land or rock part of Earth (including land under water)
Examples: mountain, plain, valley, continental shelf (area around a continent where
the ocean is not very deep), canyon, island, mesa.
• Atmosphere: air (gases) that extend about 6,000 miles above Earth’s surface; air is
about 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen, and 1% other gases.
• Hydrosphere: water in, on, and above Earth in all its forms.
Examples: groundwater, oceans, lakes, ice caps, water vapor, clouds.
• Biosphere: parts of lithosphere, atmosphere, and hydrosphere that support life (living
organisms like plants, animals, fungi, and bacteria).
Many physical processes affect Earth’s physical geography:
• Tectonic forces: lithosphere consists of large tectonic plates that move relative to each
other; movement causes earthquakes and landforms, such as mountains and volcanoes,
at plate boundaries.
ANNUAL CHANGES IN EARTH-SUN RELATIONSHIPS
Earth’s 23.5o tilt and annual revolution around the sun, cause changes in duration and intensity of sunlight at a
given location throughout the year, resulting in seasons, weather phenomena, and geographic zones.
Example 1: Northern Hemisphere’s summer solstice on June 20th/21st
• Sunlight directly hits Tropic of Cancer
• Longest day of year and beginning of summer in north; shortest day of
the year and beginning of winter in south
• Continuous daylight in Arctic Circle
Example 2: Between March equinox (sun passes over equator; equal
lengths of day and night) and September equinox, greater solar energy in
northern tropics causes wet season (by convectional precipitation).
Example 3: A hurricane is an extreme weather event that forms when air
over a warm ocean warms up and gains a large amount of water vapor.
Hurricanes originate in the tropics during summer and autumn.
Geographic zones (affect climate) are based on Earth-sun relationships:
• tropical (low latitude): between Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn
• polar (high latitude): north of Arctic Circle or south of Antarctic Circle
• temperate (middle latitude): between tropical zone and polar zones
weather: conditions (wind, precipitation, temperature, humidity) at a particular time and place; can change
suddenly, hurricanes, floods, tornadoes, droughts, and blizzards are extreme weather phenomena
climate: seasonal pattern of weather conditions in an area over many years; does not change suddenly; key factors
result in climate regions.
San Andreas Fault,
Andes Mountains, South
Volcanoes, lakes- East Africa
Himalaya MountainsIndia, China
Weathering: breaking down of rock into smaller pieces (sediment); forces that
cause weathering include weather (wind, rain, flowing water) and freezing and
thawing (water in rock’s pores expands when it freezes, putting stress on the rock
and causing it to break apart.
Erosion: movement of weathered rock caused by gravity (as in landslides), water,
wind or ice (such as glaciation).
Wave action: waves can be either can be constructive (add sediment to a beach) or
destructive (remove, or erode, sediment from a beach.
Soil building: weathering, erosion, deposition can result in an accumulation of
sediment; organic matter (humus), water, and air combine with sediment to
produce soil that can support plant life.
LANDFORMS AND PHYSICAL PROCESSES
Physical processes form distinct landforms in the lithosphere
Examples: Weathering and erosion carve out canyons. Deposition of eroded sediment
carried by a river forms a delta at the rivers mouth. Sediment from constructive wave
action creates a beach. Wind then creates sand dunes. Tectonic forces create
mountains, volcanoes, lakes, and trenches. Underwater volcanic eruptions can form
degrees north or south of equator
(equator is 0o; north pole is 90o N,
south pole is 90o S
elevation height above sea level
Effect on Climate
tropics are warm all year (sun drives convectional precipitation);
polar zones are cold all year, temperate zones are seasonal
“rivers” within oceans that move
currents” warm water from tropics or cold
water from polar zones
warm ocean currents heat the air, increasing temperatures and
humidity (water in air); cold ocean currents can have reverse
higher elevations are colder
prevailing wind may blow over a
wind from over water is humid; frontal precipitation occurs
body of water or over land to a
when a mass of warm, wet air meets a mass of cold air
position on continent
mountain mountains force air up to pass over, orographic precipitation occurs on windward side of mountain
air cools and holds less water
(leeward side is much drier)
Example 1: Explain the Amazon rainforest’s tropical wet climate.
Answer: It is located at low latitudes near the equator. The sun drives convectional precipitation year round by
heating warm humid air in the morning. The air rises, clouds form, and rain falls in the afternoon.
Example 2: Explain Mount Kilimanjaro's year-round ice cap.
Answer: The mountain is near the equator with a tropical wet/dry climate at its base. The peak is at a high
elevation, resulting in many different climates at different elevations along the mountain. Near the cap, there is a
highland climate (alpine tundra)
Example 3: Sweden has a much warmer climate (humid continental) than areas of Canada or Russia (subarctic) at
same latitude. The North Atlantic current, a warm ocean current, moderates Europe’s climates.
Example 4: The Coast of Chile has a marine west coast climate. Just inland, across a mountain range (the Andes),
the climate is semiarid or arid. Orographic precipitation occurs on the windward (west) side.
DISTRIBUTION OF PLANTS AND ANIMALS
Climate and soil determine vegetation (plant life) that grows in a region.
ecosystem: mix of all living and non-living things, conditions, and
interactions in an area; a biome describes the ecosystem of a region
land use: human activity, such as farming or ranching; alters biomes
Examples: A rainforest contains a huge variety of plant and animal life
(high biological diversity). Tundra or desert biomes contain only plants
and animals that have been adapted to the harsh conditions. Grasslands
have been converted to grazing and cropland (fertile land, good soil).
Political & Economic
GDP per capita $3500
Oil Prod. (BPD)
Muslim 86%,Catholic 3% Protestant 35%, Catholic
26% none 19%_________
Hindi 41%, Bengali 8%, Mandarin, others,
140 /sq. km
Life Expectancy M/F 65.77/67.95
Settlements and Urbanization
Settlements are often located along transportation routes or near natural resources (especially water), economic activities, other settlements.
Cities: large population centers (commercial, industrial, and residential areas)
Urbanization: growth of cities; fewer than 5% of people lived in cities two hundred years ago, but now more than half of all people live in cities.
Example 1: The physical maps show modern cities in locations that were originally settled thousands of years ago. What features do they share?
Answer: Alexandria, Beijing, Rome, and Istanbul are all located
on bodies of water (river or coastal locations).
All four cities were also located on ancient trade routes, such as
the spice trade and the Silk Road
Categories 2, 3, & 4 – Geography, Culture, and Economics by Country
Select geographic, cultural, and economic features are shown below for key countries from each world region.
N. Africa/SW Asia
Size (sq. km)
Political & Economic_________________________________________________________________________________
federal republic democracy
GDP per capita
Catholic 85% Catholic 90%
Muslim 99.9% Muslim 98%
Protestant 23% Protestant 15% Protestant 6% Muslim 8%
(75% practicing) Muslim 12%
Shia 89% /Sunni 9% Chr. 40% Indig.10%
Russian/many minority Turkish,
English, many minority
Infant Mortality3 6.06
Life Expect. M/F
Category 2- Geography
HUMANS AND THE PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENTHumans depend on and adapt to, and modify the physical environmExample 1: Around 30,000 B.C., Beringia formed a land bridge between Siberia and Alaska. Humans
are believed to have followed herds of animals, migrating to North America. Their descendants include the Inuit, who live today in Arctic portions of Canada. Inuit survive in the Arctic by using sleds for transportation,
fishing, and hunting for food, using animal skins for clothing and footwear, and making winter homes (igloos) from snow.
Example 2: In the Sahara, nomadic Taureg people have adapted to the harsh desert climate by using camels for transportation, raising livestock for food, using tents for temporary shelter, and trading food and goods.
Example 3: For thousands of years, people in the Andes Mountains of Peru, including the Inca and their descendants, have raised llamas for transportation, wool, and meat. Llama dung may have been important for
growing maize (corn), which supported some of the world’s first cities.
DEFINING GEOGRAPHIC REGIONS
Formal Regions: defined by characteristic(s) that the whole region shares. Example: Australia’s outback is arid and has few people (<2/square mile). (Latin America is a formal region)
Functional Regions: defined by a focal point and the areas connected to it. Example: Houston metropolitan area includes the city and many suburbs. (They include roads, infrastructure)
Perceptual Regions: defined by people’s feelings about an area.
Example: “Eastern Europe” is defined differently by different people. (Texas can be part of the South or West
depending on the persons view)
Example: Physical, political, social/cultural, and economic features shape the character of a place. Using the tables, what are some differences between Australia and Canada?
Answer: Australia and Canada have many similar features. However they differ in climate (latitude), land use or vegetation, and oil production. Also, in certain provinces of Canada, the
dominant language is French instead of English.
Category 2- Geography
population density: measure of “crowdedness”; inhabitants per unit area
migration- movement of people from one location to another; physical geography affects routes (paths),
flows (numbers), and destinations.
push-pull factors- push factors are reasons for leaving the starting location; pull factors are reasons
people are attracted to the destination.
Example: Taiwan and Australia each have around 23 million inhabitants, but the population
density in Taiwan is much higher. Australia has vast arid and semiarid areas where few
people choose to live.
Common Push Factors
Common Pull Factors
war, genocide, persecution,
peace, protected freedoms
discrimination, limited rights,
and rights (political,
religious, and personal)
Example: An estimated 12 million Africans were forcibly transported across the Atlantic to the
Americas in the 16th and 19th centuries. (push)
high unemployment, poor
job opportunities, good living
living conditions and medical
conditions and medical care,
care, financial instability
Example: During England’s industrial revolution people left rural areas to find jobs: city-dwellers grew
6% in 1700 to 80% by 1900 (pull)
birth rate: number of live births per 1,000 people
mortality rate: number of deaths per 1,000 people (death rate)
growth rate: birth rate minus mortality rate (rate of natural increase)
population pyramid: shows population details (usually age and gender)
Example 1: Egypt, 2011
Example 2: Japan, 2010
family/cultural connections, improved
limited chance to marry
chance to marry
Example: Mormons fled bullying to settle in Utah in 1847. (push)
By 1905 , over 90,000 foreign Mormons converts had lived in Utah (pull)
natural disaster, man-made
attractive climate, better natural
disaster, pollution, climate
Example: About 400,000 Ukrainians had to relocate to safer areas after a nuclear plant meltdown
Contaminated a large area around Chernobyl
WORLD POPULATION GROWTH AND DISTRIBUTION
Fossil evidence suggests modern humans lived in Africa over 200,000 years ago.
World Population: Growth and Key Events
Floods, droughts, fires,
The pyramid shape of Egypt indicates a developing nation. Egypt’s population is young. Its
future growth will be greater than Japan. The pyramid shape of Japan, indicates a developed
INTERRELATIONSHIPS AMONG PHYSICAL & HUMAN PROCESSES
The geographic characteristics of a place are interdependent.
Each process affects and is affected by the other processes.
Example: Population growth slows once industrialization occurs
due to declining birth rates. Europe’s share of the world
population has dropped from over 21% in 1950 to less than 1%
Hurricanes, and weather changes such as El Niño change the environment. Example: When rivers overflow, property and
lives may be lost. However, flooded land often benefits from the addition of nutrients & sediment to the soil & revovers
GEOGRAPHICAL DATA ANALYSIS
Example: Drought may have increased Botswana’s child mortality rate
in 2005 (HIV infections peaked in 2003)
Categories 2 & 3- Geography and Culture by World Culture Region
Largest Nations within Region, Ordered from Largest Population to Smallest Population_______________________________
United States; Canada_____________________________________________________________________________________
Brazil; Mexico; Columbia; Argentina; Peru; Venezuela; Chile; Ecuador; Guatemala; Cuba; Bolivia; Dominican Republic; Haiti____
Germany; France; United Kingdom; Italy; Spain; Poland; Romania; Netherlands; Portugal; Greece; Belgium; Czech Republic____
Russia; Ukraine; Uzbekistan; Kazakhstan; Belarus; Azerbaijan; Tajikistan; Kyrgyzstan; Turkmenistan; Georgia; Moldova________
N Africa/SW Asia
Egypt; Turkey; Iran; Algeria; Morocco, Iraq; Afghanistan; Saudi Arabia; Yemen; Syria; Tunisia; Israel; Libya; Jordan____________
Nigeria; Ethiopia; Dem. Rep. of the Congo; South Africa; Sudan; Tanzania; Kenya; Uganda; Ghana; Mozambique; Madagascar__
India; Pakistan; Bangladesh; Nepal; Sri Lanka; Bhutan; Maldives____________________________________________________
China; Japan; South Korea; North Korea; Taiwan; Hong Kong; Mongolia; Macau_______________________________________
Australia; Papua New Guinea: New Zealand; Fiji; Solomon Islands; French Polynesia; New Caledonia; Vanuatu; Samoa_______
Example 1: Women and religious minorities are treated differently in different regions. One measure of economic opportunities for women is the difference between male and female literacy rates.
Which regions have almost no difference between male and female literacy rates?
Answer: U.S./Canada, Latin America; Europe; Russia/Republics; Oceania/Australia.
Example 2: The standard of living in a nation depends on a blend of political, economic, and social/cultural factors. Which regions have more people moving into than out of them?
Answer: U.S./Canada, Europe, Oceania/Australia (+ net migration rates).
Example 3: Taiwan is a 35,980 sq. km island near China. Cuba is a 110,860 sq. km island near the U.S., located at a similar latitude. Taiwan has a market economy (free enterprise), whereas Cuba has a
command economy that is isolated from the U.S. Cuba’s isolation and its economic structure may affect its productivity (GDP), innovation rates, and diffusion rates of new ideas and behaviors.
GDP per capita
Merchant Marine Fleet (commercial)
Example 4: South Asia is religiously diverse, but most South Asian nations are dominated by a single religion.
Bangladesh Nepal Sri Lanka__
Living conditions in an area can change dramatically due to political, economic, social, and environmental (natural and human-caused) changes.
Example: Desertification in the Ethiopian Highlands transforms arid or semi-arid land with productive value (grazing, farming) into desert. Over-grazing, a lack of rain, and possibly global warming have
expanded desertification and resulted in economic hardships, social changes, and political unrest in Ethiopia.
Category 3- Culture
culture- behaviors and ideas shared by a group of people, language,
religion, land use, education level, political system, and customs contribute
to a region’s distinct character.
point of view- different groups of people view cultures differently.
Example: People from Catholic Mexico, Islamic
(Shia) Iran, or post-Christian Western
Europe may judge other religions
quite differently based on their different
PROCESSES OF CULTURAL CHANGE
A culture changes when new ideas, behaviors, and technologies are adopted. People may or may not be motivated to adopt a
new idea or behavior.
Example: Few Jews converted to Catholicism in Poland during the 17th and 18th centuries, despite efforts by the Catholic Church.
The Jewish community and Christian community maintained distinct cultures and there was limited motivation on the part of
Jewish people to convert.
independent invention- idea, behavior, or technology originates within culture.
Example: Writing was invented and adopted by the Sumerians in Mesopotamia (modern-day Iraq) around 3500 B.C. The Olmecs
of ancient Mexico also developed writing independently around 400 B.C.
diffusion- idea, behavior, or technology spreads from another culture(s)
Examples of Diffusion and Adoption
Spaniards brought horses when they migrated from Europe to North America. Plains Indians began to use horses
for hunting buffalo, warfare, and transportation by the mid 1600’s._____________________________________
The Korean War resulted in a strong U.S. military presence in South Korea. Beginning in the 1950’s, South
Koreans near U.S. bases often learned English. American television and radio programs affected South Korean
styles and tastes______________________________________________________________________________
Indian merchants brought Indian cuisine to Southeast Asia.___________________________________________
CULTURAL PATTERNS AFFECTING INNOVATION AND DIFFUSION
By examining the history of innovation and diffusion across cultures, patterns emerge that reveal cultural factors affecting these
Impact of Innovation and Diffusion
freedom of expression
encourages open exchange and debate of ideas
fast-moving markets spur innovation and change
access to education
provides skills to create and evaluate ideas
Inter-cultural exchanges exposure to more ideas; share and modify ideas
Example: Large cities, cultural diversity, an international border, protected individual rights, and a university and corporate
emphasis on technology have spurred fast cultural change in Texas through innovation and diffusion.
DYNAMIC (CHANGING) AND STATIC (TRADITIONAL CULTURES
The rates of cultural change varies between cultural groups and regions
Example 1: The U.S. and Canada culture region is often an early adopter of new behaviors and ideas, such as democracy, new
technology and pop culture. Amish people who live there purposely maintain traditional ways, however, using windmills, horsedrawn carriages, and hand sewn clothing.
Example 2: Brazil’s language is Portuguese and it is largely Catholic, due to colonization by Portugal. Brazilian food, art, and music
are strongly influenced by native and African culture. Some indigenous groups in the Amazon rainforest have maintained their
separation from the Brazilian culture and live traditionally as hunters and gatherers.
CULTURAL CONVERGENCE AND DIVERGENCE
cultural convergence- process by which cultures grow more alike (similar)
Example 1: The spread of democratic ideas (equal political rights and protected civil liberties) had made the cultures of diverse
nations that adopt these ideas and behaviors (examples include Canada, Costa Rica, New Zealand, Micronesia, Estonia, Norway,
and Cyprus) more alike.
Example 2: Communicating through translators is inefficient. Scientists and business people use English for many international
Example 3: U.S. fast food chains, such as McDonalds, are expanding quickly in Eastern Europe and Russia. The European furniture
store, IKEA, is quickly growing in the U.S. Globalization can lead to cultural convergence.
cultural divergence- process by which cultures grow apart (less alike)
Example: China and Taiwan share the same language, and the majority of Chinese and Taiwanese people are the same ethnicity.
After the 1949 Communist Revolution, however, the two countries diverged politically, socially, and economically in many ways.
Taiwan became democratic, capitalism fueled economic growth, and dramatic social change resulted.
Category 4- Economic, Science, Technology, and Society
Traditional, Command, and Market (Free Enterprise) Economies
traditional economy: goods and services are traded without exchanging
money; also called “barter system”; common in undeveloped areas.
command economy: government controls the production (and often the
distribution) of goods and services; also called “planned economy”
market economy: voluntary participation by producers and consumers;
consumer demand production; “capitalism” or “free enterprise”
PRODUCTION METHODS FOR FOOD AND BASIC GOODS
People use different methods to get food and goods to meet their needs.
subsistence agriculture: food is mostly consumed
by farm family.
Example: A family on a small farm in Asia raises a
variety of crops and animals to meet its needs. A small amount is traded or
sold to get basic needs not produced by the family, such as salt or tea.
Market-oriented agriculture: food is mostly sold
Example: Using modern technology, a large
Canadian farm produces a huge wheat crop
which is sold to a broker.
cottage industry: individual makes goods in his or her home.
Example: Before the Industrial Revolution
in England, many women would spin and
weave wool into cloth in their homes.
The business operator would bring them
raw wool, take the cloth, and pay per
commercial industry- employees come to central location(s) and use the
companies equipment, resources.
Example: A modern textile factory in Pakistan
has many employees and combines yarn,
knitting, fabric dyeing, processing, laundry,
apparel manufacturing, and export facilities
to make and ship textiles.
As a nation develops market-oriented agriculture, commercial industry, and
its infrastructure. GDP gross domestic product, total value of all goods or
services produced) also increases. One measure of a nation’s economic
development level is per capita GDP (GDP per inhabitant).
Category 4- Economics, Science, Technology, and Society
LOCATION AND PATTERNS OF ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES
The location where a certain type of economic activity takes place depends on many factors. It is important for some businesses to locate near their customers. Other businesses benefit more from
locating near certain resources. For others, access to low-cost transportation (such as a seaport, railroad, or highway) is most critical.
Example: Paper mills are located near timber resources to minimize the cost of transporting cut trees to the mill. Mills often negotiate with railroad companies to get a rail line at the mill for
shipping out paper.
Changes can shift the locations and patterns of economic activities.
At the start of the Industrial Revolution, most factories were located along rivers so that flowing water could power the machines. The steam engine broke this pattern by
enabling factories to be built anywhere.
Transportation costs limited the location of many economic activities. The expansion of railroads allowed the low-cost shipment of goods over long distances, allowing
businesses to located along rail lines further from markets, suppliers, and resources.
The invention of the internet (world wide web) has allowed online businesses to find customers anywhere.
GLOBAL TRADE PATTERNS OVER TIME
Global trade patterns have taken many different forms over time:
• Silk Road: ancient overland trade route that extended from China to the Mediterranean Sea; trading caravans carried silk, spices, and other materials over 4,000 miles from 100 BC until the 15th
• European maritime spice trade: Ottoman Turk Empire blocked overland trade routes to Europe in 1453; Portugal developed a sea trade route to India around the southern tip of Africa which
replaced the Silk Road.
• triangular trade: slaves were transported from West Africa to New World (colonial) ports; cash crops were transported from colonies to Europe; European finished goods were sent to Africa
• modern trade patterns: many corporations make goods by gathering materials from certain countries, making basic parts in other countries, completing assembly in yet another country, and
shipping finished goods to countries throughout the world (using modern technologies)
GLOBAL DISTRIBUTION OF RESOURCES
The available resources in a place affect the movement of products, people, and capital (money) into or out of it.
Example 1: Kuwait is a small nation in the Middle East with poor land for crops and limited water. In 1938; its small pearl-diving economy was changed forever by the discovery
of oil. Investment capital and people flowed into the country, petroleum and service industries expanded, and GDP grew. Today, Kuwait is a rich nation that exports petroleum
Products and imports food and other goods. The majority of the inhabitants are non-Kuwaiti.
Example 2: Puerto Rico is a territory of the U.S. comprised of several islands in the Caribbean. Because of its limited natural resources, many Puerto Ricans migrate to the U.S. in search of jobs.
RESOURCE USE POLICIES AND REGULATIONS
The more valuable a resource is at a certain location, the more likely it is to be regulated to control its development and distribution.
Example: Water is scarce in Israel. To provide for current needs and plan for future needs, the production and use of water is regulated by The Water Commission: “The water resources of the
State are public property; they are subject to the control of the State… “Taxes, pricing, and other laws control water use in homes, businesses, and farms.
TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATIONS AND THE PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT
Humans have used major innovations to modify the environment
Effect on Physical Environment
Early humans used fire for heat, light, protection, and cooking. Fire expanded human locations and populations. About 5,000 years ago, humans began to use fire to make metal tools,
enabling them to do more work and to change the environment (farms, ranches, logging). Today, firewood usage has eliminated woody plants in some undeveloped areas and “slash
and burn” agricultural practices convert raw land (like rainforest) into temporary farmland. Burning also adds gases and particulates to the atmosphere.
steam power Steam power expanded transportation (ships, trains) and the production of raw materials (mining, pumped water) and goods. This allowed humans to meet their needs and populate
more places. It also transformed the environment by converting more raw land to human uses (logging, agriculture, mining, and urban areas) and adding gases and particulates to
the atmosphere (from burning coal)
Diesel fuel is produced from crude oil. It stores a lot of energy and can be easily transported. This innovation led to automobiles and changes to the environment (crude oil
production, petroleum refining, road construction, population booms near oil resources, and atmospheric changes).
Electricity allowed power produced at one location to be transmitted over wires to distant locations. It further expanded the locations of human populations and activities. The
burning of fossil fuels (coal, gas) to produce electricity adds gases and particulates to the atmosphere.
TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATIONS AND PHYSICAL PROCESSES
Innovations protect people and property from physical processes:
• floods: dam construction, dikes, water pumps, prediction models
• hurricanes: seawalls, building codes, prediction/warning
• earthquakes: building codes and public works construction
Social Studies Skills
Borders define political units, such as cities, states, and countries.
man-made border: artificial border created by humans; often
follows a line of latitude (horizontal division that defines a distance
north or south of the equator) or a line of longitude (vertical division
that defines a distance east or west of the prime meridian in
Greenwich, England) Example: Great Wall of China- borders China
natural border: border based on the physical environment, such as a
body of water (sea, river, lake) or a mountain range. Example:
Rio Grande River is the border between the U.S. (Texas) and Mexico.
TECHNOLOGY, MARKETS, AND PERCEPTION OF RESOURCES
New technology and markets change people’s perception of resources.
Example: The digital and communications revolution connects people and dramatically increases the rates of diffusion and
innovation. GDP can be grown dramatically by capable people using information as a resource. Educated, productive people
may be perceived as a nation’s most valuable resource (instead of a large supply of gold or crude oil).
Technology, Primary Economic Activities, and the Environment
Primary economic activities: extraction of raw materials from Earth, such as farming, ranching, mining, logging, fishing,
quarrying, and hunting.
Example: Technology (like pesticides and genetically modified seeds) enables farmers to increase food supply while farming
the same amount of land. Pesticides and fertilizers add chemicals to the environment.
Social Studies Skills
MAPS AND GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION
Maps can be created to show many types of geographic information.
Example: Egypt and Southwest Asia: Distribution of Religions.
Question: In which country is there a Shia Muslim (Islamic majority)?
HISTORICAL, GEOGRAPHIC, AND STATISTICAL INFORMATION SOURCES
A variety of sources can be used to find historical, geographic, and statistical information,
including government and media-produced reports, databases, interviews, and polls
(results of questionnaires)
Example: In what ways are the Ukraine and the U.K. similar?
United Kingdom____________ Answer: The two countries
49N, 32E (at center
54N, 2W (at center)_________ similar latitudes (49N vs. 54N),
608,550 sq. km
243,610 sq. km_____________ populations (45,134,707 vs.
62,698,362________________ 62,698,362), and literacy rates
80%______________________ (99.4% vs. 99%).
Ukrainian Orthodox Kyiv 50%
Christian (various, many
Ukrainian Orthodox Moscow
nominal) 71.6%;Muslim 2.7%
26%, Christian (other) 20%__________Hindu 1%, other 1.6%_______
Ukrainian 67% ;Russian 24%
English, many recognized
99.4% (total population)
99% (for total population____
GDP per capita
STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF GEOGRAPHIC DATA
Spreadsheets and statistical software can be used to analyze geographic
data in order to better understand a situation or data set.
number of occurrences in a given period of time_
largest number minus smallest number_________
sum of values divided by the number of items____
middlemost number in an ordered list of numbers
most frequent number in a list of numbers_______
Example: The median GDP per capita may relate to the standard of living in
a country more directly than the mean GDP per capita. The middlemost
number will not be skewed by the presence of outliers, such as a small
population of people whose income is extremely high.
CASE STUDIES AND GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS
case study: detailed investigation and presentation that focuses fully
exploring or describing a particular situation, event, person, or group; the
scope is usually narrow and generalizations are avoided (generalizations
require multiple case studies and large sample sizes)
geographic information system (GIS)-system that allows data to be
connected to its corresponding location; key tool for geographers.