Europe and Russia chapter 1

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Transcript Europe and Russia chapter 1

Chapter 1
Physical Geography
EUROPE AND RUSSIA
1:1 Land and Water
 Objectives:
 Learn about the size, location, and population of
Europe and Russia.
 Examine the major landforms of Europe and
Russia.
 Find out about the waterways of Europe and
Russia.
1:1 Vocabulary
 Population density
 The average number of people living in a square
mile or kilometer
 Peninsula
 A land area nearly surrounded by water
 Plateau
 A large raised area of mostly level land bordered
on one side by steep cliffs/slopes
1:1 Vocabulary
 Tributary
 A river or stream that flows into a larger river
 Navigable
 Wide and deep enough for ships to travel through
Size, Location, and Population
 Europe and Russia are parts of Eurasia, the
world’s largest land mass.
 This landmass covers 2 continents: Europe
and Asia
 Russia is on BOTH continents
 The Ural mountains divide
Europe from Asia.
Size, Location, and Population
 Location: much of Europe and all of Russia are
farther north than the US.
 Population: Europe is the 2nd smallest continent,
BUT it has a large number of countries…47!
Many countries are the size of US states. The
exception is Russia.
 Russia is the largest (size) country in the world. It
is twice the size of the US.
 Population: smaller European countries have a
higher population density. Russia has a very
small population density (22 people/sq. mile).
Major Landforms
 Europe forms a
peninsula
Major Landforms
 Look at the map on page 12. What do you
notice about natural barriers in Europe?
 There are no natural barriers. People in Europe
can travel easily to other European countries.
Four major land regions
 Northwestern Highlands
 Steep slopes; thin soil; forests; raise goats and sheep
 North European Plain
 Productive farmland; largest cities in Europe
 Central Uplands
 Mountains and plateaus; mining; tourism
 Alpine Mountain System
 Home to the Alps, the highest mountain range; some
small family farming
Plains, Uplands, and Mountains
of Russia
 Moscow and over large Russian cities are
located in the North European Plains.
 Ural Mountains divide Russia (Europe and
Asia). The land east of the Urals is the
uplands.
 Uplands make up 75% of the land, but only 20% of
population live there.
 Continue east and you will find the West Siberian
Plains – the largest plain in the world. This low,
marshy land covers more than 1 million square
miles!
Waterways
 The Rhine River begins in the Alps and runs for
865 miles. Canals and tributaries connect the
Rhine to Western Europe.
 The Danube River is Europe’s 2nd longest river
(1,770 miles) through 9 European countries.
 The longest river, the Volga, stretches 2,291
miles through Russia.
 Lakes: There are few lakes in Europe. Russia has
lots of lakes; the largest freshwater lake is found
in Russia. It contains 1/5 of the world’s fresh
water supply.
1:1 Review
 Which country is located in both Europe and
Asia?
 Russia
 How does the land size of Europe differ from
that of Russia?
 Europe is small in size, but has more countries
 What are the 4 major land regions in Europe?




Northwestern Highlands
North European Plain
Central Uplands
Alpine Mountain System
1:2 Climate and Vegetation
 Objectives:
 Find out about the wide range of climates in
Europe and Russia.
 Learn about the major climate regions of Europe
and Russia.
 Examine the natural vegetation regions of Europe
and Russia.
1:2 Vocabulary
 Rain shadow
 The area on the dry, sheltered side of a mountain,
which receives little rainfall
 Steppes
 The grasslands of fertile soil suitable for farming in
Russia
 Tundra
 A cold, dry, treeless region covered with snow for
most of the year
 Permafrost
 A permanently frozen layer of ground below the top
layer of soil
A Wide Region of Climates
 The wide range of climates can be attributed
to the oceans.
 Places near the oceans have a milder climate
year around.
 The North Atlantic Current carries warm
water from the tropics to northwestern
Europe.
Oceans and Climate
 The oceans also affect how much moisture is
dropped in the form of precipitation.
 Winds blowing over the ocean pick up
moisture and drop it as rain over land. Winds
blowing from the west drop a large amount
of rainfall. Western Europe is fairly wet.
Mountains and Rainfall
 Mountains also affect the climate.
 In Europe, areas west of the mountains
receive heavy rainfall. Thus, Western Europe
is very wet.
 Why?
 As winds rise up the mountains, they cool and
drop their moisture. By the time the air reaches
the other side, it is dry. The eastern side of a
mountain is typically drier.
Major Climate Regions
 Turn to page 9 of your text book…
 How many different climate regions does Europe
and Russia have?
 8
 Which climate region is named after a major
body of water?
 Mediterranean
 How do you think this climate differs from that
of Northern Europe and Russia?
 It is probably warmer because it is near the equator.
Natural Vegetation
 Vegetation regions in Europe and Russia vary
from ice cap to desert. Look at the map on
page 21…
 What is the major kind of vegetation
dominates most of Europe?
 Deciduous forest
Vegetation Regions
 Grasslands:
 Major vegetation region in Europe and Russia
 Most of the grasslands today are used for farming
 In Russia the grasslands are called steppes.
 These steppes are similar to the Great Plains in the
US.
Vegetation Regions
 Mediterranean:
 A mix of trees, scrub, and smaller plants (usually
less than 8 feet tall).
 Tundra:
 Winters last 9 months
 Vegetation made up of grasses, mosses, and other
plants that bloom only in the warmer months.
1:2 Review
 How do oceans affect the climate?
 Areas near the ocean are mild in climate
 How does the North Atlantic Current affect
northern Europe?
 It carries warm water from the Gulf of Mexico to
northwestern Europe and warms the winds that
blow from the west.
1:2 Review
 What are the natural vegetation regions of
Europe and Russia?
 Forest, grassland, tundra, and Mediterranean
 How are vegetation regions and climate
regions related?
 Climate affects the types of vegetation that can
grow in an area.
 What geographic features might make a
person decide to like in Europe rather than in
Russia?
 Warmer, milder climate
1:3 Resources and Land Use
 Objectives:
 Learn about the natural resources of Western
Europe.
 Find out about the natural resources of Eastern
Europe.
 Examine Russia’s natural resources.
1:3 Vocabulary
 Loess
 A type of rich, dustlike soil
 Hydroelectric power
 The power generated by water-driven turbines
 Fossil fuel
 A source of energy that forms from the remains of
ancient plants and animals
Resources of Western Europe
 Western Europe is a wealthy region
 This is partly due to the fact that Western
Europe has many resources.
 Those resources include: rich soil, water, and
fuel
Resources of Western Europe
 Fertile soil
 Loess, moderate temperatures, and rainfall make
great farmlands.
 Abundant water
 Not only for drinking and crops. Water is used to
produce energy in many European countries.
 Fuel
 Include fossil fuels like natural gas, coal, and oil
Resources of Eastern Europe
 Many of the same resource found in Western
Europe can also be found in Eastern Europe.
 Fossil fuels
 Rich soil
 Hydroelectric power
Russia’s Resources
 Russia has a larger amount of natural
resources compared to the US.
 Russia’s harsh climate, huge size, and unnavigable rivers are some of the reasons it
has not been able to utilize its resources to
make the country rich.
 Russia is also not well suited for farming.
Russia’s Resources
 Fossil Fuels
 Russia has the largest reserves of natural gas
 In the top 5 of world’s leading oil producers
 Estimated that Russia has 1/3 of the world’s coal
reserves
 Russia also has a large reserve of iron ore used to
produce steel.
Russia’s Resources
 Forest, Fishing, and Energy Resources
 Largest reserve of forests
 Wood used to make paper, furniture, pulp, etc
 Fishing is also a huge resource
 Russia uses many of its fossil fuels to produce
energy.
 One of the world's largest producers of electricity
Russia’s Resources
 Russia’s Challenges
 Most of the oil, natural gas, and coal are located in
Siberia
 Siberia is known for its brutal climate and isolation
 Russia is so big that it is hard to transport goods
 The rivers in Russia are either not navigable or
flow in the wrong direction.
 Pollution and protecting the environment
1:3 Review
 Name Western Europe’s major natural
resources.
 Fertile soil
 Water
 Fuel
 How is water used as a natural resources in
Western Europe?
 Drinking, watering crops, power
1:3 Review
 How do Western Europe and Russia differ in
their use of natural resources?
 Western Europe has developed its resources to
become an important industrial region, while Russia
has not been able to fully develop its resources
 Why is Russia not as wealthy as Western Europe?
 Russia has not been able to use its resources to earn
money due to its size, the location of the resources,
and the climate