Africa - TeacherWeb

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Transcript Africa - TeacherWeb

The African Nations
I. Africa
A. Location
1. East of North and South America, south of Europe
2. Surrounded by the Indian and Atlantic Oceans
3. 2nd largest continent in the world
a. divided into 5 sections: North, South,
Central, East and West
B. Landforms
1. Atlas Mts. Africa’s longest range located in
North Africa
a. separate the Sahara from the
Mediterranean Sea
2. Mt. Kilimanjaro- highest mountain in Africa
3. desert- hot area with little rainfall
a. oasis- fertile land in the desert
b. Sahara Desert- largest in the world
4. Savanna- short grassy plain
5. Rainforest-dense forest with large amounts of
rainfall
6. Waterways
a. Nile River- longest river in the world
i. flows North
b. Congo River- flows through the rainforest
in Central Africa
c. Niger River- provides water for farmers
d. Zambezi River- used for hydroelectric
power
i. Victoria Falls- where the Zambezi
River empties into the Indian Ocean
7. Islands- Madagascar. Canary Cape Verde
8. Valleys- Great Rift Valley
Congo River
Niger River
Victoria Falls
Madagascar
C. Natural Resources
1. Cacao trees- used to make chocolate
2. subsistence farming- growing crops to support your
family
3. cash crops- growing crops to sell
4. minerals- oil, petroleum, gold, diamonds
D. Early People
1. earliest people were hunter-gatherers
a. gathered fruits and nuts, hunted for food and
clothing
b. Made tools out of stone and bone
2. domesticated plants and animals
a. planted certain crops, raised certain animals
b. did not travel
c. became civilized
i. people with governments, social classes
art and writing
ii. Bantu Language- people who spoke this
language migrated (moved) all over Africa. Eventually
developed into different ethnic groups.
E. North Africa
1. Egypt (Ancient)
a. Pharaohs ruled Egypt
i. Pyramids were their burial tombs
1. Great Pyramids- located in Giza
2. Sphinx- guardians of the city
ii. Mummy- body treated for burial
iii. Hieroglyphics- ancient Egyptian writing
became extinct after the Christians took over Egypt
1. Rosetta Stone helped crack the
code of the ancient hieroglyphics
Pyramids of Giza
Close up of the pyramids
Front and side view of
the Sphinx
Sarcophagus of a
Pharaoh
King Tut’s Tomb and
burial mask
King Tut’s Sarcophagus
His mummified skull and
replication of what he looked
like when he ruled
2. Modern Egypt
a. Religion- Islamic or Muslim
b. Quran- holy book, main source of
their law
1. based on the deeds & words of
Muhammad
2. stresses the importance of honor
honesty and giving to others
3. says men and women are equal
in the eyes of God
c. mosque- Muslim place of worship
F. West Africa
1. Nigeria
a. multiethnic- variety of ethnic groups
and cultures who speak a
variety of different languages
b. More people live in Nigeria than in
any other country in Africa
c. once a British colony but gained its
independence in 1980
G. East Africa
1. Ethiopia
a. Only African country besides Egypt to have
a written history
b. Was the center of trade for Eastern Africa
i. Severe drought caused poverty throughout
the land (1977-1979; 1984-1986)
ii. USA and England
held concerts, (Live Aide) to help
people in Ethiopia
H. Central Africa
1. Zaire (Democratic Republic of the Congo)
a. one of the world’s main sources of copper
b. 4 major regions
i. Congo Rainforest- dense forest
ii. Northern Uplands- covered in grasslands
iii. Eastern Highlands- grasslands and forests
iv. Southern Uplands- flat plains
c. 2/3 of the people farm, mining produces the
country’s wealth.
d. military leader- Mobuto (until 1997)
1. authoritarian government -single leader or
Small group all the power.
2. nationalized industry- put under government
Control.
Cutting down the
Rainforest
Congo Rainforest
Mobuto: Leader of
Zaire
I Southern Africa
1. South Africa
a. lies at the Southern most tip of Africa
b. one of the wealthiest African Countries
c. cultural differences
i. black South Africans arrived 1500 years ago
ii. White South Africans arrived about 400
years ago, settled in Cape Town
iii. Considered themselves superior
called themselves Afrikaners, spoke
Afrikaans language
d. apartheid- separateness, people were separated
according to race
i. Apartheid made discrimination legal
ii. Countries around the world fought against
apartheid stopped trading with South Africa
banned Athletes from the Olympics
iii. 1990 William de Klerk passed a law banning
apartheid
iv. 1994 first elections held in which all people,
regardless of race. Were able to vote.
**Nelson Mandela – Black South African
who had been in jail for over 20 yrs. won the
election
**still divided because of
race…government working on this