Session_3_Networks

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Transcript Session_3_Networks

Information Systems and
Technology
Networks and Interfaces
Networks
A group of interconnected
people or things.
A number of interconnected
computers, machines or
operations.
“New Oxford Dictionary”
Basic Communication Theory
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A message transmitted from a source
1) Simplex
2) Half Duplex
3) Full duplex
Measurement of Transmission
Speed
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1) Bandwidth
2) Baud Rate – Bits per Second
Connecting Computers
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LAN - Local Area Network
WAN – Wide Area Network
Modem – Modulator – Demodulator
• Converts digital signal to analog signal
and back
Connecting Computers
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ISDN – Integrated Services Digital
Network
DSL – Digital Subscriber Line
Cable Modem - Broadband
Advantages of Using a Network
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1)
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Shared data
Shared software
Shared hardware resources
Communications
Reliability
Expandability
Control
Network Components
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1)
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4)
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File server
Network operating system
Workstations
Network topology
Type of cable used
Cable layout
Network adaptors or interface cards
Network Topology
Cable Type
Unshielded twisted pair
Co-Axial
Fiber optic
Network Topology
Cable Layout
Bus layout
Ring layout
Star layout
Network adaptors
Networks are for sharing
Word processing
Spreadsheets
E-mail
Databases
Each sharing operation has its own
set of rules
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Standards
Protocols
TCP/IP
Network Model
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1) Network Operating System
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Software that runs the network
2) Workstations (Peripherals)
3 Network topology
a) Network Interface Card
 b) Network Cabling
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Workstations (Peripherals)
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Servers – two types
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a) Files servers
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Redirectors
b) Print servers
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Spoolers
Hardware in a NOS
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Dedicated file server
LAN adaptor
 Network communications
 Username & privileges
 Netware file server software / data files
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Hardware in a NOS
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Client computer
Application program
 Operating system
 Redirector
 Network communications
 Interface card driver
 LAN adaptor
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Hardware in a NOS
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Print Server
LAN adaptor
 Interface card driver
 Network communications
 Print server software
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Two Types of Networks
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Peer to Peer
Client to Peer
Peer to Peer
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Separate workstations tied together with cable
through a hub
Allows sharing of information and resources
Advantages of Peer to Peer
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Cheaper to install and maintain
Can readily be expanded or converted
Allows sharing of information and resources
Does not use a file server
Disadvantages of Peer to Peer
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Less management control
No multitasking
Each workstation is in control
Client to Peer
 Workstations using a central file
server
 Allows sharing of information on a
central source
Advantages of Client to Peer
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Uses central servers to maintain
control
Better management control
Better data security
Fast response
Room for expansion
Multitasking
Disadvantages of Client to Peer
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Cost
Complex to operate and maintain
Network Interface Card
 Also called a LAN adaptor
 PCI
 PC Card Adaptors
Cabling
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Tying it all together
Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP)
Coaxial Cable
Shielded Twisted Pair (STP)
Fiber Optic
UTP
 Speed & Throughput
 Fast enough
 Average Cost
 Cheapest
 Media & Connector Size
 Small
 Maximum Cable Length
 Short
Coaxial Cable
 Speed & Throughput
 Fast enough
 Average Cost
 Inexpensive
 Media & Connector Size
 Medium
 Maximum Cable Length
 Medium
STP
 Speed & Throughput
 Very Fast
 Average Cost
 Expensive
 Media & Connector Size
 Large
 Maximum Cable Length
 Short
Fiber Optic
 Speed & Throughput
 Fastest possible
 Average Cost
 Most expensive
 Media & Connector Size
 Tiny
 Maximum Cable Length
 Very long
Wireless Networks
 Wireless LAN
 Local Area Network – Connections for
portable PC’s
 Each portable has a Wireless Access
Card
 Reaches a 100 to 200 ft circle
Wireless Connections
 Based on IEEE 802.11 Standard
 IEEE Institute of Electrical and
Electronics Engineers
 802.11 Standard – 54 mbps connection
Bluetooth
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Uses radio technology at lower power
levels
Reduces interference
Telecomm Technology in Guest
Rooms
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Cordless phones – a portable room
extension
Caller ID
DID – Direct Inward Dial
Telephone Roaming Applications
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Digital cordless phones for
management
Covers 2,000 acres or 150,000 sq ft
indoors
Allows movement with privacy of
conversation and clear signal
Hand Held Devices
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Hand held calculators
• Among the first business devices
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Barcode readers
Cell phones and wireless internet
Pagers & 2 way radios
PDA’s
Pocket PC’s
Uses in Hospitality
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Car rental companies
• Use hand held devices at check in
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Hand held devices that permit
managers to access information
Wireless check in / check out
Restaurant Applications
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Wireless internet access for
customers
Wireless POS systems
Fast food service
PDA’s offered to customers to place
orders
Wireless paging
Drawbacks/Considerations
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Cost justification
• ROI
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What are the specific uses?
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Housekeeping
Inventory
Facility management
Payment processing
Remote c/in – out
Restaurant order entry
Sales and catering updates
Employee tracking
Other questions to ask
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If you can’t justify acquisitions of
handhelds & foresee improvement in
operations, need to take another
look
Will changes need to be made in
property infrastructure
How much training is required
Who will support the system
Security Concerns
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Loss
Information taken offsite
Transmission security
Transmission problems
Viruses
Screen & keyboards
Summary
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Benefits outweigh the drawbacks in
many applications
Expect to see functionality improve
Size diminish
Cost continues to decrease
Interfaces
Some Types of Interfaces
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Central
Reservations
Internet
Point of Sale (POS)
Credit card
Revenue
management
Back office
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PBX/Call
accounting
In room
entertainment/refr
eshment systems
Sales & catering
Energy
management
Electronic door
locks
Central Reservations
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One way interface
Two way interface
Internet
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Usually used for guest reservations
Guest can obtain real time
information for reservation bookings
Usually combined with company web
site
• Third party software
Point of Sale (POS)
Receives and responds to guest
information in posting charges from
outlets
Credit availability
Helps avoid late departure charges
Credit Card Interface
Allows faster and more accurate
approval for guest stays
Gets money to the bank faster
Revenue Management
Allows management to update rates
faster, therefore providing a better
“yield”
Yield – optimum mixture of rate and
occupancy
PBX/Call Accounting
PBX – allows guest to make and
receive calls
Call Accounting – prices and charges
for outgoing calls
Creates predefined pricing structure
Automatically transmits to PMS for
posting
Printed copy for backup
Regularly updates area codes
Administrative lines
Voice Mail
Voice mail – allows guest to retrieve
messages, eliminating need for
“paper” messages
Opens own mail box upon check in
Guest records personalized greeting
Makes sure all messages are cleared
In-Room
Entertainment/Refreshment
Systems
One way vs. two way
Pay per view movies
Games
Mini bars
Most are now in a “connected” mode
Provides better verification of
consumption
Allows stocking clerk to better prepare
cart
Sales & Catering Systems
Allows better control over room
availability in conjunction with meeting
space
Yield management
Energy Management Systems
Helps control energy costs
Helps guest satisfaction by maintaining
room temperature at a more constant
temperature
Infrared or movement detection
Can provide “intermediate” level to improve
guest comfort
DND
Emergency situations
Electronic Door Locks
Guest security
Protect against unexpected stayovers
Helps limit guest access to certain
areas of the hotel
Summary
• Focus on key areas of hotel
operations
• Use technology only where it
makes sense
• Think about your own
tolerances