Architectures

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Transcript Architectures

The Application
Layer
Networks : 13:00 to 16:00
W1.01
Arron Martin Zeus Brown
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OSI or TCP/IP
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OSI (Open Systems Interconnection)
model
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TCP/IP Model
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Application Layer
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Top of stack
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works for user programs
provides services
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e.g. NFS, remote command execution, user
authentication
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architecture neutral
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additonal - defines protocols for full-screen
text editor! (why?)
Application Layer
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Does not
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run programs
require programs to know protocols
Does
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embody interface between user programs
and presentation layer
Allow client-server interaction to occur
Clients & Servers
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Client
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works on behalf of the user
Server
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provides access to resources
controls access to resources
manages requests
maintains resource integrity
Server Examples
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X11
NFS
SMB
LPD
WWW
FTP
TELNET
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SMTP
POP
IMAP
MAPI
Windows
Linux
etc. etc. etc.
Client-Server example
Request R
Grant - ID
Client
Perform on ID
Result
Release ID
ACK
Server
Note
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Client should block until its request has
been fulfilled
Server decides order of allocation
(cf O/S resource management rules DEADLOCK handling)
Requirements - 1
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Application Protocol
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Common Language
 supporting all possible operations
 e.g.
 “Open file”
 “Write to file”
 “Read from file”
 “Close file”
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two-way if necessary (acknowledgements, errors
etc.)
Requirements - 2
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Lower-level protocols
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support adequate communications
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reliability
delivery modes
Network/Comms infrastructure
Lower Level Models
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IP suite
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TCP vs UDP
Sockets & Ports
RPC, RMI
DCOM
RPC
ORBs (CORBA etc.)
More on these later…...
Server Types
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State driven
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require exact sequence of events
break if sequence breaks
complete conversations only
Stateless
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handle partial conversations
cope with broken / incomplete event
sequences
State Driven servers
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Based on Finite State Machines (FSMs)
or Finite State Automata
Each event causes the machine to move
to a new state from which events will
cause more transitions.
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In any state, an unknown or unexpected
event will be a problem.
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If an event does not occur - what
happens to the machine ?
Stateless servers
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Not state driven
Event driven
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(cf WIMP system)
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Any event can happen at any time
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Server will process correctly
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(cf WWW server)
More complex - more robust
Tutorial Topic
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HTTP
(N.B. HTTPS is HTTP working through an
encrypting presentation layer for added
“security” [some argue that HTTP works at
the application & session layers too] )
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