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Transcript Introduction

Forensic Science and
Criminal Justice
GAVS 1 Introduction to Forensics and Criminal Justice
SFS1. Students will recognize and
classify various types of evidence
in relation to the definition and
scope of Forensic Science.
a. Compare and contrast the history of
scientific forensic techniques used in
collecting and submitting evidence for
admissibility in court (e.g. Locard’s
Exchange Principle, Frye standard,
Daubert ruling).
Learning Targets
1. I can describe how scientific discoveries have
influenced the development of forensics as
it applies to the law?
2. I can differentiate between the specialties
and techniques used in a crime lab to
process evidence and report findings.
3. I can describe the responsibilities of the
Forensic Crime Lab and Forensic Scientist.
 Comes from Latin word forensis, meaning
forum originating from the Roman Forum in
which a criminal charge was presented before
the public. Both the accused and accuser
would present a speech based on his side of
the story.
Influential Forensic Scientists
of the Past
 Albert Osborn (1858-1946) “Father of
Questioned Document Examination.”
 Founded the American Society of Questioned
Document Examiners in 1942.
 In 1932, the son of a famous aviator, Charles
Lindbergh, was kidnapped and a ransom note left.
Several spelling mistakes and grammatical habits
led investigators to believe the suspect was of
German ancestry. Later a German immigrant,
Bruno Hauptmann, was arrested and found guilty
in the child’s abduction and murder.
Influential Forensic Scientists
of the Past (cont)
 Mathiew Orfila (1787-1853) “Father of
 Authored “Traite’ des poisons” (Trestise on
Poisons) in 1814 providing detailed descriptions of
poisons and their effects on animals.
 Helped to develop new testing methods for
Arsenic poisoning and the presence of blood in a
crime scene or in evidence.
Influential Forensic Scientists
of the Past (cont)
 Alphonse Bertillon (1853-1914) – “Father of
 Developed a system to distinguish one individual
from another based on certain body
measurements. His systems included 11 various
body measurements, plus eye, hair, and skin color.
 Originally developed to identify prisoners other
than by names, pictures, and subjective
 These measurements helped catch repeat
 The scientific study
of the
measurements and
proportions of the
human body.
Influential Forensic Scientists
of the Past (cont)
 Calvin Goddard (1891-1955) – “Father of
 Developed technique to examine bullets using a
comparison microscope to determine if a
particular gun fired the bullet.
Influential Forensic Scientists
of the Past (cont)
 Edmond Locard (1877-1966) – “Father of the
Crime Lab.”
 Started the first crime lab in an attic of a French
police station in 1910.
 Developed Locards Exchange Principle
Locard’s Principle of Exchange
 “Every Contact Leaves a Trace.”
 He believed that every criminal can be
connected to a crime by particles carried
to or from the crime scene.
 Wherever he steps, whatever he touches, whatever he
leaves, even unconsciously, will serve as a silent witness
against him. Not only his fingerprints or his footprints, but his
hair, the fibers from his clothes, the glass he breaks, the tool
mark he leaves, the paint he scratches, the blood or semen
he deposits or collects. All of these and more, bear mute
witness against him. This is evidence that does not forget. It is
not confused by the excitement of the moment. It is not absent
because human witnesses are. It is factual evidence. Physical
evidence cannot be wrong, it cannot perjure itself, it cannot be
wholly absent. Only human failure to find it, study and
understand it, can diminish its value.
- Professor Edmond Locard
Influential Forensic Scientists
of the Past (cont)
 Francis Galton (1822-1911) – “Father of
 Developed a system of fingerprint identification as
a way to uniquely identify individuals.
 Discerned 8 types fingerprint patterns.
The Frye Standard
 Arose from the court decision, Frye v. US in 1923.
 An expert witness claimed he could determine that John
Frye, charged with murder, was lying due to increase in his
blood pressure and pulse.
 Led to standards pertaining to the admissibility of
scientific examinations and experiments in legal
 Data collected must be reliable and reproducible under the
same circumstances and be generally accepted by the
scientific community.
 Under the Frye Standard, blood alcohol tests are
admissible, but polygraph tests (lie detector tests)
are not.
The Daubert Ruling
 Arose from 1993 court decision in Daubert v. Merrell
Dow Pharmaceuticals.
 Jason Daubert and co-plantiff Eric Schuller were born with
significant birth defects they claimed were caused by a
drug their mothers had been prescribed in pregnancy.
 Expert witness testimony by Dr. William McBride claimed
that multiple serious birth defects were caused by this drug.
 Independent sources found this evidence to be falsified and
co-authors of Dr. McBride’s research came forward
announcing Dr. McBride had falsified his study findings.
 Resulted in a revision of the Frye Standard requiring
more rigorous application of the scientific method
including hypothesis testing, estimates of error
rates, peer-reviewed publication, and general
Crime Labs
 Scientific laboratory for the purpose of examining
evidence from criminal cases.
 Most are not equipped or staffed to provide all
necessary services, so some evidence is sent to other
labs to be analyzed.
 4 major crime labs in the US
 DEA – Drug Enforcement Administration – specializes in
investigations involving drugs.
 FBI – Federal Bureau of Investigation – one of the largest
crime labs in the world with broad investigative power and
privilege. They analyze all types of evidence.
 ATF – Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives –
investigates offenses involving unlawful use, manufacture
and possession of firearms and explosives, acts of arson and
bombings, illegal trafficking of alcohol and tobacco.
 USPIS – US Postal Inspection Service – devoted to inspection
of mail for fraud and prohibited substances.
Forensic Science Disciplines
 Forensic Anthropology
 Application of physical anthropology (study of
various aspects of humans within societies of the
past and present) and human osteology (the study
of the human skeleton) in a legal setting
 Most often when the victim’s remains are in
advanced stages of decomposition.
 Can assist in identification of deceased individuals
whose remains are decomposed, burned, mutilated,
or otherwise unrecognizable.
Forensic Science Disciplines (cont)
 Forensic Psychiatry
 A sub-speciality of psychiatry and criminology.
 Provides services, such as determination of
competency to stand trial.
Forensic Science Disciplines (cont)
 Forensic Odontology
 Proper handling, examination and evaluation of
dental evidence as part of a criminal case.
Forensic Science Disciplines (cont)
 Forensic Engineering
 The investigation of materials, products,
structures, or components that fail or do not
operate as intended causing personal injury or
damage to property.
Forensic Science Disciplines (cont)
 Forensic Entomology
 Study lifecycles of insects that feed on the flesh of
the dead, to establish timeline of death and
occasionally identify chemicals present in a
person's body at the time of death.
Forensic Science Disciplines (cont)
 Forensic Pathology
 Branch of medical science that uses medical
knowledge for legal purposes.
Forensic Scientist
 Work in the field to collect evidence at a
crime scene, lab to analyze blood samples, or
digging up skeletal remains
 Focus is to recognize, gather and analyze
evidence from a perceived crime scene for
use in a criminal case in court.
 May testify as an expert witness to interpret
evidence or explain scientific findings to the
Crime Scene Archaeology
 The application of archaeological concepts,
to the crime scene to help in the location and
recovery of ancient or decomposed remains
and artifacts of evidence.
 May be able to discern age, sex, some
physical characteristics of the remains, injury
to the body, and cause of death.
 Utilized when buried remains are found to
accurately excavate.
St. Valentine’s Day Massacre
Case Study
 Complete your first case study.
 Perform research about the St. Valentine’s
Day massacre, orchestrated by Al Capone.
 See Case Study Instructions
Forensic Science Review
Match the following:
Forensic Science
Expert in questioned documents and forgery
Mathieu Orfila
Application of scientific knowledge
Alphonse Bertillion
Work led to a system of fingerprinting that is
still used
Francis Galton
Developed a system of identifying repeat
offender criminals
Calvin Goddard
Responsible for advancements in ballistics
through extensive ballistic database
Albert S. Osborn
Wrote that “every contact leaves a trace” in
reference to the “Principle of Exchange”.
Edmond Locard
Helped initiate the study of toxicology as it
pertained to legal
Forensic Science Review
Match the following:
Forensic Science
Application of scientific knowledge
Mathieu Orfila
Helped initiate the study of toxicology as it
pertained to legal
Alphonse Bertillion
Developed a system of identifying repeat
offender criminals
Francis Galton
Work led to a system of fingerprinting that is
still used
Calvin Goddard
Responsible for advancements in ballistics
through extensive ballistic database
Albert S. Osborn
Expert in questioned documents and forgery
Edmond Locard
Wrote that “every contact leaves a trace” in
reference to the “Principle of Exchange”.