Chapter 7 - Security in Networks

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Transcript Chapter 7 - Security in Networks

Chapter 7 –Security in Networks
Introduction to networks
 Threats against network applications
 Controls against network applications
 Firewalls
 Intrusion detection systems
 Private e-mail

Terminal-Host Systems

Created in the 1960s
• Central host computer does all the
processing
• Terminal is dumb--only a remote screen
and keyboard
• Created in the 1960s, when
microprocessors for terminal intelligence
did not exist
Terminals
Host
PC Networks

The Most Common Platform in
Organizations
• Allows PCs to share resources
• Both Wintel (Windows/Intel) PCs and
Macintoshes
Network
Network

A Network is an Any-to-Any
Communication System
• Can connect any station to any
other
Network
Network

Each Station has a Unique Network
Address
• To connect, only need to know the
receiver’s address
• Like telephone number
DEF
ABC
MNO
“Connect to GHI”
JKL
GHI
LANs and WANs
Networks Have Different
Geographical Scopes
 Local Area Networks (LANs)

• Small Office
• Office Building
• Industrial Park / University Campus

Wide Area Networks (WANs)
• Connect corporate sites or
• Connect corporate sites with sites of
customers and suppliers
Elements of a Simple LAN
Hub or Switch
Wiring
Hub or Switch connects
all stations
Wiring is standard
business telephone wiring
(4 pairs in a bundle)
Elements of a Simple LAN
Client PCs are used by
ordinary managers and
professionals; receive service
Servers provide services
to client PCs
Client PC
Server
Server
Server
Client PC
Elements of a Simple LAN

Client PC
• Begin with stand-alone PC
• Add a network interface card (NIC) to
deal with the network
• Networks have many client PCs

Server
• Most PC nets have multiple servers
Wide Area Networks

WANs Link Sites (Locations)
• Usually sites of the same organization
• Sometimes, sites of different
organizations
Site B
Site A
Site C
WAN
Client/Server Processing

Two Programs
• Client program on client machine
• Server program on server machine
• Work together to do the required
processing
Client Program
Client Machine
Server
Program
Server
Client/Server Processing

Cooperation Through Message
Exchange
• Client program sends Request
message, such as a database
retrieval request
• Server program sends a Response
message to deliver the requested Server
Program
information
or
an
explanation
for
Client Program
failure
Request
Client Machine
Response
Server
Client/Server Processing

Widely Used on the Internet

For instance, webservice
• Client program (browser) sends an
HTTP request asking for a webserver file
• Server program (webserver application
program) sends an HTTP response
message with the requested webpage
HTTP Request Message
HTTP Response Message
Client/Server Processing

On the Internet, a Single Client
Program--the Browser (also known
as the client suite)--Works with Many
Kinds of C/S server applications
• WWW, some E-mail, etc.
E-mail
Server
Browser
Webserver
Standards Organizations and
Architectures

TCP/IP Standards
• Created by the Internet Engineering Task
Force (IETF)
• Named after its two most widely known
standards, TCP and IP


TCP/IP is the architecture, while TCP and IP are
individual standards
However, these are not its only standards, even at
the transport and internet layers
• IETF standards dominate in corporations at
the application, transport, and internet
layers

However, application, transport, and internet
standards from other architectures are still used
Standards Organizations and
Architectures

OSI Standards
• Reference Model of Open Systems
Interconnection
• Created by the International
Telecommunications UnionTelecommunications Standards Sector (ITUT)
• And the International Organization for
Standardization (ISO)
• OSI standards dominate the data link and
physical layers

Other architectures specify the use of OSI
standards at these layers
OSI Reference Model
User / Application program
Layer 7
Application
Layer 6
Presentation
Layer 5
Session
Layer 4
Transport
Layer 3
Network
Layer 2
Data link
Layer 1
Physical
Physical medium
Figure 1.12 OSI Protocol Layers
TCP/IP versus OSI

Lowest Four Layers are Comparable
in Functionality
TCP/IP
OSI
Application
Application
Presentation
Session
Transport
Network
Data Link
Transport
Internet
Data Link (use
OSI)
Physical (use
OSI)
Physical
Internet Standards

Accessing the WWW from Home
App
HTTP
App
Trans
TCP
Trans
Int
IP
Int
IP
Int
DL
PPP
DL
?
DL
Phy
Modem
Phy
?
Phy
User PC
Router
Webserver
Indirect Communication

Application programs on
different machines cannot
communicate directly
• They are on different machines!
Browser
HTTP Request
Web App
Trans
Trans
Int
Int
DL
DL
Phy
Phy
User PC
Webserver
Layer Cooperation on the
Source Host

Application layer process passes
HTTP-request to transport layer
process
Application
HTTP Request
Transport
Internet
Data Link
User PC
Physical
Layer Cooperation on the
Source Host

Transport layer makes TCP
segments
• HTTP message is the data field
• Adds TCP header fields shown earlier
• Transport process “encapsulates”
HTTP request within a TCP segment
TCP Segment
HTTP Request
Data
Field
TCP-H
TCP
Header
Layer Cooperation on the Source Host

Transport layer process passes the
TCP segment down to the internet
layer process
Application
Transport
TCP segment
Internet
Data Link
User PC
Physical
Layer Cooperation on the Source Host

The internet layer process passes the
IP packet to the data link layer
process
• Internet layer messages are called
packets
Application
Transport
Internet
IP packet
Data Link
User PC
Physical
Layer Cooperation on the Source Host

The data link layer process passes the
PPP frame to the physical layer
process, which delivers it to the
physical layer process on the first
router, one bit at a time (no message
at the physical layer)
Application
Transport
Internet
Data Link
User PC
PPP frame
Physical (10110 …)
To first
router
Layer Cooperation on the Source Host

Recap: Adding Headers and Trailers:
Application
HTTP msg
Transport
HTTP msg
TCP-H
Internet
HTTP msg
TCP-H IP-H
HTTP msg
TCP-H IP-H PPP-H
Data Link
User PC
PPP-T
Physical
Protocols

A protocol is a standard for
communication between peer
processes, that is, processes at the
same layer, but on different machines
• TCP, IP, and PPP all have “protocol” as
their final “P;” they are all protocols
• TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) is
the protocol governing communication
between transport layer processes on
two hosts
Message
Trans
TCP
Trans
Domain Name System (DNS)

Only IP addresses are official
• e.g., 128.171.17.13
• These are 32-bit binary numbers
• Only they fit into the 32-bit
destination and source address fields
of the IP headers
IP Packet
32-bit Source and Destination Addresses (110011...)
Domain Name System (DNS)

Users typically only know host names
• e.g., voyager.cba.hawaii.edu
• More easily remembered, but
• Will not fit into the address fields of an
IP packet
IP Packet
NO
voyager.cba.hawaii.edu
Internet and Data Link Layer Addresses

Each host and router on a subnet
needs a data link layer address to
specify its address on the subnet
• This address appears in the data link
layer frame sent on a subnet
• For instance, 48-bit 802.3 MAC layer
frame addresses for LANs
Subnet DA
DL Frame for Subnet
Addresses

Each host and router also needs an
IP address at the internet layer to
designate its position in the overall
Internet
Subnet
128.171.17.13
Subnet
Subnet
IPv6

Current version of the Internet Protocol is
Version 4 (v4)
• Earlier versions were not implemented

The next version will be Version 6 (v6)
• No v5 was implemented
• Informally called IPng (Next Generation)

IPv6 is Already Defined
• Continuing improvements in v4 may delay its
adoption
IPv6

IPv6 will raise the size of the internet
address from 32 bits to 128 bits
• Now running out of IP addresses
• Will solve the problem
• But current work-arounds are delaying
the need for IPv6 addresses
What Makes a Network
Vulnerable?
Anonymity
 Many points of attack (targets &
origins)
 Sharing
 Complexity of system
 Unknown perimeter
 Unknown path

Who Attacks Networks
Hackers break into organizations
from the outside

•Challenge
•Fame
•Money & Espionage
•Ideology
However, most security breaches
are internal, by employees and
ex-employees

Threat Precursors
Port Scan
 Social Engineering

• Reconnaissance
• Bulletin Board / Chat
• Docs

Packet Sniffers (telnet/ftp in
cleartext)
Network Security Threats

Interception
• If interceptor cannot read, have confidentiality
(privacy)
• If cannot modify without detection, have
message integrity
Network Security Threats

Impostors (Spoofing/ Masquerade)
• Claim to be someone else
• Need to authenticate the sender-prove that they are who they claim to
be
True
Person
Impostor
Network Security Threats

Remotely Log in as Root User
• Requires cracking the root login
password
• Then control the machine
• Read and/or steal information
• Damage data (erase hard disk)
• Create backdoor user account that will
let them in easily later
Root Login Command
Security Threats

Content Threats
• Application layer content may cause
problems



Viruses
In many ways, most severe security
problem in corporations today
Must examine application messages
Replay Attack

First, attacker intercepts a message
• Not difficult to do
Replay Attack

Later, attacker retransmits
(replays) the message to the
original destination host
• Does not have to be able to read a
message to replay it
Replay Attack

Why replay attacks?
• To gain access to resources by
replaying an authentication
message
• In a denial-of-service attack, to
confuse the destination host
Thwarting Replay Attacks

Put a time stamp in each message to
ensure that the message is “fresh”
• Do not accept a message that is too old

Place a sequence number in each message
• Do not accept a duplicated message
Message
Time
Stamp
Sequence
Number
Thwarting Replay Attacks

In request-response applications,
• Sender of request generates a nonce
(random number)
• Places the nonce in the request
• Server places the nonce in the response
• Neither party accepts duplicate nonces
Request
Nonce
Response
Nonce
Network Security Threats

Denial of Service (DOS) Attacks
• Overload system with a flood of
messages
• Or, send a single message that
crashes the machine
Denial of Service (DOS) Attacks
Transmission Failure
 Connection Flooding

• Echo-Chargen
• Ping of Death
• Smurf
• Syn Flood
• Traffic Redirection
• DNS Attacks

Distributed Denial of Service
VPNs

IETF developing IPsec security
standards
• IP security
• At the internet layer
• Protects all messages at the transport
and application layers
E-Mail, WWW, Database, etc.
TCP
UDP
IPsec
VPNs

IPsec Transport Mode
• End-to-end security for hosts
Local
Network
Secure Communication
Internet
Local
Network
VPNs

IPsec Tunnel Mode
• IPsec server at each site
• Secure communication between sites
Local
Network
Secure Communication
Internet
Local
Network
IPsec
Server
VPNs

IPsec Modes Can be Combined
• End-to-end transport mode connection
• Within site-to-site tunnel connection
Local
Network
Tunnel Mode
Internet
Local
Network
Transport Mode
VPNs

Another Security System for VPNs
is the Point-to-Point Tunneling
Protocol (PPTP)
• For dial-up connections, based on PPP
• Connects user with securely to a
remote access server at a site
Dial-Up
Connection
PPTP Connection
Internet
Local
Network
Remote Access Server
PKIs

To use public key methods, an
organization must establish a
comprehensive Public Key
Infrastructure (PKI)
• A PKI automates most aspects of using
public key encryption and authentication
• Uses a PKI Server
PKI
Server
PKIs

PKI Server Creates Public KeyPrivate Key Pairs
• Distributes private keys to applicants
securely
• Often, private keys are embedded in
delivered software
Private Key
PKI
Server
PKIs

PKI Server Provides CRL Checks
• Distributes digital certificates to
verifiers
• Checks certificate revocation list before
sending digital certificates
Digital Certificate
PKI
Server
PKIs

CRL (Certificate Revocation List) Checks
• If applicant gives verifier a digital
certificate,
• The verifier must check the certificate
revocation list
CRL
PKI
Server
OK?
OK or Revoked
Integrated Security System

When two parties communicate …
• Their software usually handles the
details
• First, negotiate security methods
• Then, authenticate one another
• Then, exchange symmetric session key
• Then can communicate securely using
symmetric session key and messageby-message authentication
SSL Integrated Security System

SSL
• Secure Sockets Layer
• Developed by Netscape

TLS (now)
• Netscape gave IETF control over SSL
• IETF renamed it TLS (Transport Layer Security)
• Usually still called SSL
Location of SSL

Below the Application Layer
• IETF views it at the transport layer
• Protects all application exchanges
• Not limited to any single application

WWW transactions, e-mail, etc.
E-Mail
WWW
SSL
E-Mail
WWW
SSL
SSL Operation

Browser & Webserver Software
Implement SSL
• User can be unaware
SSL Operation

SSL ISS Process
• Two sides negotiate security parameters
• Webserver authenticates itself
• Browser may authenticate itself but
rarely does
• Browser selects a symmetric session
key, sends to webserver
• Adds a digital signature and encrypts all
messages with the symmetric key
Importance of SSL

Supported by Almost All Browsers
• De facto standard for Internet
application security

Problems
• Relatively weak security
• Does not involve security on merchant
server
• Does not validate credit card numbers
• Viewed as an available but temporary
approach to consumer security
Other ISSs
SSL is merely an example integrated
security system
 Many other ISSs exist

• IPsec
• PPP and PPTP
• Etc.
Other ISSs

All ISSs have the same general steps
• Negotiate security parameters
• Authenticate the partners
• Exchange a session key
• Communicate with message-bymessage privacy, authentication, and
message integrity
IPsec
IPsec (IP security)
 Security for transmission over IP
networks

• The Internet
• Internal corporate IP networks
• IP packets sent over public switched
data Local
networks (PSDN)
Local
Network
Internet
Network
IPsec

Why do we need IPsec?
• IP has no security
• Add security to create a virtual
private network (VPN) to give
secure communication over the
Internet or another IP network
Local
Network
Internet
Local
Network
IPsec

Genesis
• Being created by the Internet
Engineering Task Force
• For both IP version 4 and IP version 6
IPsec
Two Modes of operation
 Tunnel Mode

• IPsec server at each site
• Secures messages going through the
Internet Local
Local
Internet
Network
Secure Communication
Network
IPsec
Server
IPsec

Tunnel Mode
• Hosts operate in their usual way

Tunnel mode IPsec is transparent to the
hosts
• No security within the site networks
Local
Network
Secure Communication
Internet
Local
Network
IPsec
Server
IPsec

Two Modes of operation

Transport Mode
• End-to-end security between the
hosts
• Security within site networks as well
• Requires hosts to implement IPsec
Local
Network
Secure Communication
Internet
Local
Network
IPsec

Transport Mode
• Adds a security header to IP packet
• After the main IP header
• Source and destination addresses of
hosts can be learned by interceptor
• Only the original data field is protected
Original
IP Header
Transport
Security
Header
Protected
Original Data Field
IPsec

Tunnel Mode
• Adds a security header before the
original IP header
• Has IP addresses of the source and
destination IPsec servers only, not
those of the source and destination
hosts
• Protects the main IP header
Tunnel
Security
Header
Protected
Original
IP Header
Protected
Original Data Field
IPsec

Can combine the two modes
• Transport mode for end-to-end
security
• Plus tunnel mode to hide the IP
addresses of the source and
destination hosts during passage
through the Internet
Local
Network
Tunnel Mode
Internet
Local
Network
Transport Mode
IPsec



Two forms of protection
Encapsulating Security Protocol (ESP)
security provides confidentiality as well as
authentication
Authentication Header (AH) security
provides authentication but not
confidentiality
• Useful where encryption is forbidden by law
• Provides slightly better authentication by
providing authentication over a slightly larger
part of the message, but this is rarely decisive
IPsec

Modes and protection methods can
be applied in any combination
Tunnel
Mode
Transport
Mode
ESP Supported Supported
AH
Supported Supported
IPsec


Security Associations (SAs) are
agreements between two hosts or
two IPsec servers, depending on
the mode
“Contracts” for how security will be
performed

Negotiated

Governs subsequent transmissions
Host A
Negotiate
Security Association
Host B
IPsec

Security Associations (SAs) can be
asymmetrical
• Different strengths in the two
directions
• For instance, clients and servers may
have different security needs
SA for messages
From A to B
Host A
Host B
SA for messages
From B to A
IPsec
Policies may limit what SAs can be
negotiated
• To ensure that adequately strong SAs
for the organization’s threats
• Gives uniformity to negotiation
decisions
Host A
Security Association
Negotiations Limited
By Policies
Host B
IPsec

First, two parties negotiate IKE
(Internet Key Exchange) Security
Associations
• IKE is not IPsec-specific
• Can be used in other security
protocols
Host A
Communication
Governed by
IKE SA
Host B
IPsec

Under the protection of
communication governed by this IKE
SA, negotiate IPsec-specific security
associations
Host A
Communication
Governed by
IKE SA
IPsec SA Negotiation
Host B
IPsec

Process of Creating IKE SAs (and
other SAs)
• Negotiate security parameters within
policy limitations
• Authenticate the parties using SA-agreed
methods
• Exchange a symmetric session key using
SA-agreed method
• Communicate securely with
confidentiality, message-by-message
authentication, and message integrity
using SA-agreed method
IPsec

IPsec has mandatory security
algorithms
• Uses them as defaults if no other
algorithm is negotiated
• Other algorithms may be negotiated
• But these mandatory algorithms MUST
be supported
IPsec

Diffie-Hellman Key Agreement
• To agree upon a symmetric session key
to be used for confidentiality during this
session
• Also does authentication
Party A
Party B
IPsec

Diffie-Hellman Key Agreement
• Each party sends the other a nonce
(random number)
• The nonces will almost certainly be
different
• Nonces are not sent confidentially
Nonce B
Party A
Party B
Nonce A
IPsec

Diffie-Hellman Key Agreement
• From the different nonces, each party
will be able to compute the same
symmetric session key for
subsequent use
• No exchange of the key; instead,
agreement on the key
Symmetric Key
Party A
Symmetric Key
From nonces,
independently compute
same symmetric
session key
Party B
Kerberos

Kerberos was a 3-headed dog in
Greek mythology
• Guarded the gates of the dead
• Decided who might enter
• Talk about strong security!
Kerberos

Three Parties are Present
• Kerberos server
• Applicant host
• Verifier host
Kerberos Server
Applicant
Verifier
Kerberos

Kerberos Server shares a symmetric
key with each host
• Key shared with the Applicant will be
called Key AS (Applicant-Server)
• Key shared with verifier will be Key VS
Kerberos Server
Applicant
Key AS
Key VS
Verifier
Kerberos

Applicant sends message to
Kerberos server
• Logs in and asks for ticket-granting
ticket (TGT)

Authenticates the applicant to the
server
• Server sends back ticket-granting
ticket
• TGT allows applicant to request
connections
TGT RQ
Kerberos Server
Applicant
TGT
Kerberos
To connect to the verifier
 Applicant asks Kerberos server for
credentials to introduce the
applicant to the verifier
 Request includes the TicketGranting Tickets

Kerberos Server
Credentials RQ
Applicant
Kerberos

Kerberos server sends the
credentials
• Credential include the session Key
AV that applicant and verifier will
use for secure communication
• Encrypted with Key AS so that
interceptors cannot read it
Kerberos Server
Applicant
Credentials=
Session Key AV
Service Ticket
Kerberos

Kerberos server sends the
credentials
• Credential also include the Service
Ticket, which is encrypted with Key
VS; Applicant cannot read or change
it
Kerberos Server
Applicant
Credentials=
Session Key AV,
Service Ticket
Kerberos

Applicant sends the Service Ticket
plus a Authenticator to the Verifier
• Service ticket contains the symmetric
session key (Key AV)
• Now both parties have Key AV and so
can communicate with confidentiality
Applicant
Service Ticket
(Contains Key AV)
+ Authenticator
Verifier
Kerberos

Applicant sends the Service Ticket
plus a Authenticator to the Verifier
• Authenticator contains information
encrypted with Key AV
Guarantees that the service ticket came
from the applicant, which alone knows Key
AV
 Service ticket has a time stamp to prevent
replay
Service Ticket
(Contains Key AV) + Authenticator

Kerberos

Subsequent communication between
the applicant and verifier uses the
symmetric session key (Key AV) for
confidentiality
Applicant
Communication
Encrypted with
Key AV
Verifier
Kerberos
The Service Ticket can contain more
than Key AV
 If the applicant is a client and the
verifier is a server, service ticket may
contain

• Verifier’s user name and password
• List of rights to files and directories on
the server
Verifier
Kerberos
Is the basis for security in Microsoft
Windows 2000
 Only uses symmetric key encryption
for reduced processing cost

Firewalls

Firewall sits between the corporate
network and the Internet
• Prevents unauthorized access from the
Internet
• Facilitates internal users’ access to the
Internet
Firewall
OK
No
Access only if
Authenticated
Firewalls

Packet Filter Firewalls
• Examine each incoming IP packet
• Examine IP and TCP header fields
• If bad behavior is detected, reject the
packet
• No sense of previous communication:
analyzes each packet in isolation
IP
Firewall
IP Packet
Firewalls

Application (Proxy) Firewalls
• Filter based on application behavior
• Do not examine packets in isolation:
use history

In HTTP, for example, do not accept a
response unless an HTTP request has just
gone out to that site
Application
Firewalls

Application (Proxy) Firewalls
• Hide internal internet addresses
• Internal user sends an HTTP request
• HTTP proxy program replaces user
internet address with proxy server’s IP
address, sends to the webserver
HTTP
Request
Request with
Proxy Server’s
IP Address
Firewalls

Application (Proxy) Firewalls
• Webserver sends response to proxy
server, to proxy server IP address
• HTTP proxy server sends the IP packet
to the originating host
• Overall, proxy program acts on behalf of
the internal user
HTTP
Response
Response to
Proxy Server’s
IP Address
Firewalls

Why Hide Internal IP Addresses?
• The first step in an attack usually is to
find potential victim hosts
• Sniffer programs read IP packet
streams for IP addresses of potential
target hosts
• With proxy server, sniffers will not learn
IP addresses of internal hosts
Sniffer
Host
IP Address
False
IP Address
Firewalls

Application Firewalls
• Need a separate program (proxy) for
each application
• Not all applications have rules that
allow filtering
Intrusion Detection

Intrusion detection software to
detect and report intrusions as they
are occurring
• Lets organization stop intruders so that
intruders do not have unlimited time to
probe for weaknesses
• Helps organization assess security
threats
• Audit logs list where intruder has been:
vital in legal prosecution
Intrusion Detection
Signature-based IDS – performs
simple pattern-matching and report
situtations that match a pattern
corresponding to a known attack
type
 Heuristic IDS (anomaly based) –
build model of acceptable behavior
and flag exceptions to that model

Intrusion Detection
Network-based IDS – stand-alone
device attached to the network to
monitor traffic throughout network
 Host-based IDS – runs on a single
workstation or client or host, to
protect that one host

Default-Deny Posture

Perimeter Settings: block all protocols except

Internal Settings: block all unnecessary traffic

Security Configurations: harden servers &


those expressly permitted [i.e. SMTP(25),
DNS(53), HTTP(80), SSL(443),…]
between internal network segments, remote &
VPN connections
workstations to run only necessary services and
applications
Segment Networks
Patch Management
Secure E-mail

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
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
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Message interception (confidentiality)
Message interception (blocked delivery)
Message interception and subsequent replay
Message content modification
Message origin modification
Message content forgery by outsider
Message origin forgery by outsider
Message content forgery by recipient
Message origin forgery by recipient
Denial of message transmission
Requirements and Solutions
Message confidentiality
 Message integrity
 Sender authenticity
 nonrepudiation
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Examples of Secure E-mail
Systems
PGP (Pretty Good Privacy) – uses
public key ring; confidentiality,
integrity
 S/MIME (Secure Multipurpose
Internet Mail Extensions) – uses
certificates
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Multi-Layer Security
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Security Can be Applied at Multiple
Layers Simultaneously
• Application layer security for database,
e-mail, etc.
• Transport layer: SSL
• Internet layer: IPsec
• Data link layer: PPTP, L2TP
• Physical layer: locks
Multi-Layer Security
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Applying security at 2 or more layers
is good
• If security is broken at one layer, the
communication will still be secure
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However,
• Security slows down processing
• Multi-Layer security slows down
processing at each layer
Total Security
Network Security is Only Part
 Server Security
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• Hackers can take down servers with
denial-of-service attack
• Hacker can log in as root user and take
over the server
• Steal data, lock out legitimate users,
etc.
Total Security
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Server Security
• Occasionally, weakness are discovered
in server operating systems
• This knowledge is quickly disseminated
• Known security weaknesses
Total Security
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Server Security
• Server operating system (SOS) vendors
create patches
• Many firms do not download patches
• This makes them vulnerable to hackers,
who quickly develop tools to probe for
and then exploit known weaknesses
Total Security
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Client PC Security
• Known security weaknesses exist but
patches are rarely downloaded
• Users often have no passwords or weak
passwords on their computer
• Adversaries take over client PCs and can
therefore take over control over SSL,
other secure communication protocols
Total Security
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Application Software
• May contain viruses

Must filter incoming messages
• Database and other applications can
add their own security with passwords
and other protections
Total Security
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Managing Users
• Often violate security procedures,
making technical security worthless
• Social engineering: attacker tricks user
into violating security procedures
Defense in Depth
Firewalls
 Antivirus
 Intrusion Detection Systems
 Intrusion Protection Systems
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