IP-NAME-corrige-13-06-06

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Transcript IP-NAME-corrige-13-06-06

Internet ressources
management
African perspectives
Alain Patrick AINA
[email protected]
Copyright, ECA, April 2006
What is the Internet(1)
• The "Internet" refers to the global information system that
is:
- Logically linked together by a globally unique identifiers (addresses)
based on a common standardized communication protocol called Internet
Protocol (IP)
●IP addresses and Internet domain names are the primary
Internet addressing systems of the Internet
• IP addresses are mandatory for IP communications, when
domain names facilitate communication and accessbility of
the Internet to the end users
What is the Internet (2)
•
ICANN has the responsibility for Internet Protocol (IP)
address space management, protocol identifier assignment,
generic (gTLD) and country code (ccTLD) Top-Level Domain
name system management, and root server system
management functions.
• These services were originally performed under U.S.
Government contract by the Internet Assigned Numbers
Authority (IANA) and other entities. (to be explained)
• ICANN now performs the IANA function under the terms of
the MoU with USDoC/NTIA of 11/1998, with a number of
amendments. The MoU expires in 09/2006
• ICANN performs its job trough IETF, ISOC, RIRs, gTLD and
ccTLD registry operators and registrars......
Internet Infrastructure bodies
Administration of IP addresses and Internet
Names
Internet Corporation For
Assigned Names and Numbers
IP addresses
IP addresses management (1)
• ICANN/IANA allocates blocks of IP addresses(v4 and V6)
and ASN space to the RIRs.
• IPv4 has 32 bits and gives around 4,3*109 addresses
- 196.200.55.1
• IPv6 has 128 bits which give 3,4*1038 IP addresses
- 2001:4f8:feec::1
• RIRs(Regional Internet Registry) allocates IP addresses and
ASN to LIRs and End users in their respective regions
IP addresses allocation (2)
• LIRs(Local internet Registies) are members of their
respective RIR which allocates them IP addresses which
they assign to end users(individuals or others companies
with small networks)
• RIRs also assigns IP addresses to end users who use them
for their own infrastructures
• There are now five RIRs
- APNIC (Asia Pacific network Information Center)
- RIPE NCC ( Réseaux IP Européens Network
coordination Center)
- ARIN (American Registry for Internet Numbers)
- LACNIC (Latin American and caribbean Internet
Addresses Registry)
- AfriNIC (African network Information Center)
Regional Internet Registry(1)
Regional Internet Registry(2)
• RIRs are non-profit, member-based organisations with
Policy development process (PDP)
• Policy development based on a consensus-based policies
in a bottom-up, industry self-regulation with the
participation of different stakeholders of their region
• Policy development is open to anybody,including active
participation of public (Governments,…and private sectors
as well as civil society.
Regional Internet Registry(3)
ICANN/IAN
A
Global Policy
NRO
AfriNIC
AfriNIC
mtg
APNIC
APNIC
Mtg
ASO
ARIN
ARIN
MTG
LACNIC
LACNIC
mtg
RIPE
NCC
RIPE
NCC
African Network Information Center(1)
Yes it happened just few minutes ago! Africa has its own registry!
As said few minutes ago by its CEO, "we can not celebrate this great moment without expressing our thanks to the
pioneers of this project who worked on the very first proposal in 1997. I will name Nii Quaynor, Alan Barett, Nashwa
Abdel-Baki, Sana Belamine and Randy Bush. We can tell them today that we have made their dream a reality"
08/04/2005
African Network Information Center (2)
Member services
 Registration:





IPv4 addresses
IPv6 addresses
AS numbers
Reverse delegation
DNS service
Route information
Public services
AfriNIC DB maintenance

 Coordination and liaison


AfriNIC support
Trainings:


LIR trainings
IPv6/DNSsec
 Information
dissemination
 Develop tools
AfriNIC collaborates with AfNOG , AFRISPA on
capacity building and exchange points promotion
in AFRICA
African Network Information Center(3)
●
●
●
●
1.
1.
1.
Adiel Akplogan (CEO) –
Nominated
Pierre Dandjinou (BJ) - Chairman
West Africa (up to 2007)
Didier Kasole (CD)
Central Africa (up to 2008)
Viv Padayatchy (MU)
Indian Ocean (up to 2008)
Alan Barett (ZA)
Southern Africa
Kamal Okba (MA)
North Africa (up to 2007)
Badru Ntege (UG)
East Africa
Supleants
●
Sunday Folayan (WA, NG)
●
Pierre M. Kasengedia (CA, CD)
●
Keny Yiptong (IO, MU)
●
Silvio C. Almanda (SA, AO)
●
Mokhtar Hamidi (NA, DZ)
●
Brian Longwe (EA, KE)
Board of trustees
African Network Information Center(4)
●
Two public meetings per year
Working groups and discussions by
mailing lists
●
●
Next meeting: Mauritius Nov-Dec 2006
●Joint meeting with AfNOG 2006
●http://www.afrinic.net/meetings.htm
African Network Operator Group(1)
• AfNOG is a forum for technical coordination and cooperation
among African Internet service providers and network operators
• The aim is to build a community of engineers to help each other
operating Internet Infrastructure in Africa, and on the Global
Internet.
• To train people and groups of people who will return to their
country and region and teach others what they have learned at
the workshop.
• To build links between all participants so that the peer-to-peer
relationships formed during the workshop and conferences will
remain strong well beyond the meetings
African Network Operator Group(2):
Achievements
✔ Built community of African Network Operators helping
themselves with challenges (African & Globally)
✔ Very successful and active Mailing list ([email protected]).
✔ Provided meeting space to other ISP related meetings
✔ Six workshops & meetings in six different countries covering
three sub-regions.
✔ Trained of over 300 Internet engineers
Next meeting: Mauritius, 2006
Some statistics on IP address allocation in AFRICA(1)
Data from ftp.afrinic.net/pub/stats/ (04/12/2006)
IPV4/YEAR
3000000
2750000
2500000
2250000
2000000
1750000
1500000
1250000
1000000
750000
500000
250000
0
19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 20 20 20 20 20 20 20
84 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 00 01 02 03 04 05 06
IPV4/COUNTRY
10000000
9000000
8000000
7000000
6000000
5000000
4000000
9106176
3000000
2000000
1000000
0
108544
EG
KE
577536
MA
878848
171008 106752
NG
TN
ZA
OTHE
RS
Some statistics on IP address allocation in AFRICA(2)
Data from ftp.afrinic.net/pub/stats/ (04/12/2006)
IPV6/YEAR
200
192
175
150
125
96
100
75
50
32
25
0
2002
2004
2005
2006
IPV6/COUNTRY
175
160
150
125
100
75
50
32
32
32
MA
SD
TN
25
0
EG
ZA
Number of /32
Some statistics on ASN allocation in AFRICA
Data from ftp.afrinic.net/pub/stats/ (04/12/2006)
ASN/COUNTRY
140
123
120
100
80
70
60
40
20
7
8
NG
TZ
0
EG
ZA
OTHERS
ASN/YEAR
80
74
70
60
50
40
30
27
22
20
10
8
5
3
2
3
91
93
94
95
12
9
10
98
99
12
9
13
7
0
84
96
97
200 200 200 200 200 200 200
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
TO DO
• Support AfriNIC, AFNOG, AFRISPA, etc..... by promoting
participation in their activities and policy development
process
• Encourage Network Operators to become AfriNIC members
and get the IP resource they need for their network growth
• To encourage ISPs to request Ipv6 IP blocks and start
deploying v6 infrastructures
• Participate actively in the ongoing discussions related to the
IPv6 allocation.
Internet Names
What is Domain Name System(1)?
• IP addresses are mandatory for IP communications
• Names are easier to remember than numbers
• You would like to get to the address or other objects
using a name
DNS provides a mapping from names to IP
addresses and resources of several types.
What is Domain Name System(2)?
• A mechanism for translating objects into other
objects based on a globally distributed, loosely
coherent, scalable, reliable, and dynamic
database
• Comprised of three components

A “name space”

Servers making that name space available

Resolvers (clients) which query the servers about the
name space
A key component of the Internet infrastructure
What is Domain Name System(3)?
●
TLDs(cctld,gtld,arpa)
ROOT!
gh
edu
org
uneca
gov
isoc
www
ns
The DNS Tree
Administration of the Domain Name
System(1)
• ICANN/IANA is responsible for the overall coordination and
management of the Domain Name System (DNS), and
especially the delegation of portions of the name space called
top-level domains
• The Country Code Names Supporting Organization (ccNSO) and
the generic names supporting Organization(gNSO) of ICANN
are the policy development bodies for a narrow range of global
ccTLD and gTLD issues within the ICANN structure.
• IANA delegates the administration of gTLD and ccTLD to
registry operators
At tuesday 18th April 2006, there was :
- 245 ccTLDs and 18 gTLDs (4 restricted)
Registrars act as gateway between registries and registrants for
name registration
Administration of the Domain Name
System(2)
Registry : “The wholesaler”
●
●
●
Database of
– who owns what name
– pointing names to the
servers responsible for them
Responsible for policy and
procedures
– who is entitled to names,
etc.
A registry is like the “bank
vault” of the domain names
registered under that top level
domain
Registrar and registrant
●
●
Registrar (the retailer)
– Agent of customers in dealing
with registry
● Like a retailer which then
contacts a wholesale
supplier
– Usually an ISP that is
providing others services to
customer
Registrant (the customer)
– The entity, organization or
individual that uses the
domain name
ccTLDs
What is a ccTLD? designation
A country-code Top Level Domain
In accordance with the 3166-1 list of the International
Standards Organisation and their alpha-2 code elements
Providing a unique domain identity to countries,
territories, and distinct economies.
ICANN itself has no responsibility for the entries on the
ISO 3166-1 list
What is a ccTLD? history
First description in RFC-1591 of ccTLD’s as part of the DNS
structure
ICANN/IANA is responsible for the overall coordination and
management of the Domain Name System (DNS), and
especially the delegation of portions of the name space called
top-level domains
Selecting a designated manager for a domain that was able
to do an equitable, just, honest, and competent job
These designated authorities are trustees for the delegated
domain, and have a duty to serve the community.
The designated manager is the trustee of the top-level domain
for both the nation and the global Internet community
What is a ccTLD? relationships
A mutual recognition of rights and duties between
ICANN/IANA and the ccTLD manager
Currently a variety of legacy ccTLD situations with
different legal or contractual frameworks
Originally individuals, currently transitioning to
organisations.
What is a ccTLD? Examples of the local
situation
Independent of Government
Non-for-profit (free, cost recovered, subsidised)
operation NGO or Foundation
Commercial operation
Related to Government
Arm of a national research network
Part of a Ministry (research, economic affairs,
telecoms, foreign affairs, etc)
gTLDs
What is a gTLD (1)?
Generic Top Level Domain
Creation and selection of operators through ICANN process
The relationships between ICANN and the gTLD registries are
governed by the individual Registry or Sponsorship
Agreements, which set out the obligations of both parties.
18 gTLDs at tuesday 18th April 2006
More than 150 accreditated registrars are serving the 14
non restricted gTLDs
Unsponsored and sponsored TLDs
What is a gTLD(2)?
Unsponsored gTLD Registry operates under policies
established by the global Internet community directly through
the ICANN process.
.biz, .com, .info, .name, .net, .org, and .pro
A sponsored TLD is a specialized TLD that has a sponsor
representing a specific community that is served by the TLD.
.aero, .cat, .coop, .jobs, .mobi, .museum, .travel
What is a gTLD(3)? Restricted gTLD
The .gov domain is reserved exclusively for the United
States Government. It is operated by the US General
Services Administration.
The .edu domain is reserved for postsecondary
institutions accredited by an agency on the U.S.
Department of Education's list of Nationally Recognized
Accrediting Agencies and is registered only through
Educause.
Some statistics(1)
source: http://www.verisign.com
Some statistics(2)
source: http://www.verisign.com
TOP ccTLD registries by
domain name base, third
quarter 2005
1 .de (Germany)
2 .uk (United kingdom)
3 .ar (Argentina)
4 .nl (Netherlands)
5 .it (Italia)
6 .us (United state)
7 .cn (China)
8 .br (Brazil)
9 .jp (Japan)
10 .ch (Switzerland)
Africa and Internet names(1)
ccTLDs somehow working in most countries
Unfavourable competition with the gNames
- more organized
- less expensive
Like other region, African has its cc's organisation
- AfTLD(Africa Top Level Domain)
AFTLD acts as a focal point for Africa's Country Code Top
Level Domains Managers and Sponsoring Organizations.
AFTLD appointed a representative to the ccNSO council.
Africa and Internet names(2)
No gTLD registry and registrar in AFRICA
African participation in gNSO is weak
Some efforts are needed to :
- Revitalize the ccTLDs
- Get the ccTLD to provide better services to registrants
- To encourage and promote african participation in
Internet names administration
Useful links
• IANA
– http://www.iana.org
• ASO/NRO
– http://aso.icann.org
– http://www.nro.net
• AfriNIC
– http://www.afrinic.net
• GNSO
– http://gnso.icann.org
• CcNSO
–
http://ccnso.icann.org