Chapter 2: New Empires in America
Chapter 2: New Empires in America
Chapter 2: New Empires in America
Essential question: How did Europeans change life in the Americas?
2-1 Europeans Set Sail
Big Idea: Europeans explored the world, searching for new lands and new trade routes
Key Terms and People:
Henry the Navigator
Viking Sailors Reach North America
Vikings from Scandinavia were the first Europeans to make contact with
North America around 1,000 A.D. but only stayed a few years .
Prince Henry the Navigator
In the early 1400’s, Portugal became a leader in world exploration
Henry financed explorations and training
Riches in Asia
Western Europeans wanted to bypass the monopoly of Mediterranean
Christians wanted to convert more people
Marco Polo’s writings increased interest in Asian cultures and goods
New technologies made it possible for sailors to sail the open seas
-- magnetic compass and astrolabe
--ships called caravels were able to sail against the wind
A Sea route to Asia
By the 1400’s Portugal had motives, financial support and technology
necessary for exploration
Portuguese ships sailed south along the West coast of Africa setting
up trading posts
In 1488, Bartolomeu Diaz discovered the Southern tip of Africa and
the Indian Ocean
Vasco da Gama sailed to India in 1497, the first European to discover a
sea route to Asia
Results of Exploration
Portugal’s exploration included the beginning of the Atlantic slave
trade which increased warfare between African kingdoms
Other nations watched Portugal’s increase in power and trade and
soon launched their own voyages of exploration
2-2 Europeans Reach the Americas
Big idea: Christopher Columbus's voyages led to new exchanges between Europe, Africa
and the Americas
Columbus Sails across the Atlantic
Christopher Columbus from Genoa Italy was convinced he could
reach Asia by sailing west across the Atlantic Ocean
The Journey Begins
Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain agreed to finance Columbus’s journey
After 2 difficult months, Columbus reached the islands of the Caribbean
Columbus thought he had reached Asia and called the natives “Indians”
Columbus made three more voyages, setting up colonies in what became
known as the West Indies.
Impact of Columbus’s Voyages
A new era of interaction began between Europe and the Americas
Columbus’s discovery also created conflict between European countries as
they competed for land in the “New World”
Other Explorers Sail to the Americas
In 1501, Amerigo Vespucci sailed a Spanish fleet to the coast of South America and called it the “New World”.
Mapmakers began to call it the Americas
Vasco de Balboa crossed over the isthmus of Panama and discovered the Pacific Ocean.
Ferdinand Magellan sailed past the tip of South America and into the Pacific . Although killed, his expedition became
the first Europeans to circumnavigate the globe.
Explorers and settlers took plants and
Animals with them to the Americas.
They also brought new plants back to
Europe, Africa and Asia
This transfer became known as the
To the Americas: horses, cattle, pigs, wheat
From the Americas: maize, potatoes,
Tobacco and cocoa
Diseases were also exchanged which devastated the native American peoples.
As native American populations declined, African slaves were imported to increase the labor supply.
2-3 Spain Builds an Empire
Big Idea: Spain established a big empire in the Americas
Spanish soldiers called conquistadors led military expeditions in the Americas
Conquest of the Aztec Empire
Cortez saw the Aztecs as a source of gold and silver and as converts to Christianity
A combination of guns, germs and steel enabled Cortez to conquer the Aztecs
Conquest of the Inca Empire
Francisco Pizarro conquered the Inca Empire of the Andes with only 400 men
Possibly as many as 3/4 of the Inca and Aztec peoples were killed by disease.
Spain ruled by a system of royal officials called viceroys
Three kinds of settlements:
1. Pueblos—trading posts
2. Missions built by Spanish priests to convert natives to Christianity
3. Presidios—military bases
Exploring the Borderlands of New Spain
Exploring the Southeast
Ponce de Leon conquered Puerto Rico and discovered gold
1512- de Leon explored the coast of Florida
Hernando de Soto explored Florida, Georgia and the Carolinas, discovered the Mississippi in 1541
Exploring the Southwest
Alvar de Vaca and Francisco Coronado explores the Southwest, looking for gold
Spanish Treatment of Native Americans
Spain’s colonies sent wealth to Spain, but Native Americans suffered greatly
The Encomienda system gave Spanish colonists the right to tax
Native Americans or force them to work
The Spanish operated plantations, or farms that grew one kind
Plantations made huge profits but required many workers
The Role of the Catholic Church
The Spanish king ordered priests to convert native Americans
Bartolome de Las Casas protested the harsh treatment of the
Indians and was supported by the king but Spanish colonists mostly ignored laws meant to protect native Americans.
2-4 The Race for Empires
Big Idea: Other Europeans nations challenged Spain in the Americas
Events in Europe
Wars in Europe led to competition for land and power overseas
The Protestant Reformation
Religious protest movement that split the Christian church and led to conflict across Europe
Spain and England Go to War
Catholic Spain attacked Protestant England
The defeat of the Spanish Armada led England, France and the
Netherlands to challenge Spain overseas.
Search for a Northwest Passage
Europeans desired a water route to Asia
Spain and Portugal controlled the southern water routes around
Africa and South America
Although no passage was found, exploration of North America by the British, French and Dutch increased.
European Presence in North America
Because Spain and Portugal focused on the Caribbean, Central and South America,
Other European countries explored North America
English Presence in the New World
Sir Walter Raleigh received a charter to establish a permanent colony in North America
The first attempt at Roanoke Island failed for mysterious reasons
French Presence in the New world
Explorations by Cartier and Champlain gave France claims to modern day Canada
La Salle explored the Mississippi valley and claimed it for France and named it
France concentrated on trade with Native Americans and treated them with more
respect than other European countries.
Dutch Presence in the New World
The Dutch explored the land between the Delaware and Hudson rivers, calling it
Peter Minuit founded New Amsterdam at modern New York City
2-5 Beginnings of Slavery in the Americas
Big Idea: Europeans forced millions of African slaves to work in their colonies
The Need for a New Labor Force
European diseases had a devastating effect on native Americans
who were not as immune as Europeans
9 out of 10 Native Americans died as a result of disease.
Plantation agriculture was a mainstay of the colonial economic
structure and required large numbers of workers.
Because Africans had developed more immunity from centuries of
contact with Europeans, plantation owners began to look to African
slaves to supply their labor force.
The Slave Trade
In 1610 Spain legalized the sale of slaves in its colonies
In one century, more than one million Africans were kidnapped into
The Middle Passage
The voyage across the Atlantic Ocean that enslaved Africans were forced
to endure was called the Middle Passage
Slaves were packed like cargo in the holds of ships
Many died of disease, starvation, or suffocated
Some took their own lives
Diaspora– the scattering of a people
12 million Africans were enslaved and sent to the
Slaves were given few rights as the law considered
slaves to be property, like a plow or a horse.
Slave Culture in the Americas
Slaves in America came from many different parts of Africa
Families were a vital part of slave culture
Religion gave slaves a form of expression that was not under a master’s
Music and dance were influenced by African traditions.