European Exploration

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Transcript European Exploration

European
Exploration
Was it focused on
exploring or exploiting?
ORAL PREVIEW
• How were Europeans reintroduced to
luxury goods from Asia after the fall of the
Roman Empire. How did the goods get to
Europe? Who got rich on this trade?
Answer these in complete sentences.
New Inventions
• Caravel – ship with triangular sails that
could sail into the
wind
• Astrolabe – device that gave location due
to stars
• Magnetic Compass – showed the
direction one was going
Products Europeans sought
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Spices (pepper, cinnamon)
Silk
Gold
Gems
Silver
Portugal
• Prince Henry (the Navigator) established an
academy to train sailors, ship builders,
cartographers, etc.
• Sought to sail around Africa to Asia – set up
trading posts along the western coast of Africa
• 1487 – Bartolomeu Dias reached the tip of
Africa – “Cape of Good Hope”
• 1498 – Vasco de Gama reached port in India
(his profit of 60x the cost of the trip)
Spain
• Monarchs Ferdinand and Isabella wanted to
find a trade route as well
• Columbus sailed west to get to Asia – landed in
the Caribbean – called it San Salvador
• Portugal thought Spain was claiming their land –
so they appealed to the Pope – he drew a “line
of demarcation” and gave Spain everything to
the west of it and Portugal everything to the east
Treaty of Tordesillas – b/t Spain & Portugal –
P. got Brazil – S. got rest of the Americas
Spain
• Ferdinand Magellan- credited w/ sailing around
the world although he died half way into the trip
• Hernán Cortés- conquered the Aztecs in
Mexico and got a lot of gold
• Francisco Pizarro – conquered the Incas in
Peru and Chile – gained a lot of gold
• Conquistador – Spanish explorer and warrior
who sought wealth and glory in the Americas
France
• Explored and set up fur trading outposts in
Canada
• Samuel de Champlain – claimed Quebec for
France and served as administrator for Quebec
City. Essentially he paved the way for New
France.
• Father Marquette & Louis Joliet – explored
Great Lakes area & the upper Mississippi Valley
• Robert de La Salle – explored the Lower
Mississippi River and claimed it all for France –
called it Louisiana (after King Louis XIV)
England
• 1607- Jamestown settled in Virginia
(1st permanent English settlement in Americas)
• 1620 – Pilgrims settle at Plymouth, Mass.
• 1628 – Puritans settle at Massachusetts
Bay Colony
England
James Cook – made three expeditions to the
Pacific Ocean where he discovered New
Zealand, parts of Australia, and the Hawaiian
Islands
Dutch (Netherlands)
• Henry Hudson – sought a northwest
passage to Asia – explored Hudson River
and Hudson Bay
• New Netherlands – set up trading post on
Manhattan Island – became a melting pot
of ethnicities because few Dutch wanted to
go there.
Plantation Life
• Several countries colonized the Caribbean
in the 1600s –established sugar & tobacco
plantations
• They needed a lot of labor – thus initiated
the Atlantic slave trade
• Majority of slaves were not brought to the
US but rather to the Caribbean
• The trip from Africa to the Americas was
called the “Middle Passage”
Middle passage
Triangular Trade Routes
EUROPE
sugar, coffee,
tobacco
TRIANGULAR
TRADE ROUTE 1
WEST INDIES
slaves
manufactured
goods
AFRICA
NEW ENGLAND
rum and other
manufactured goods
sugar,
molasses
TRIANGULAR TRADE
ROUTE 2
WEST INDIES
AFRICA
slaves