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Ancient Greece
• Greece is composed of
islands and peninsulas
located in the
Mediterranean Sea.
Effects of Topography
• Greece’s mountainous
terrain made it
difficult for people to
unite.
• Isolated communities
developed into
independent political
units.
Cultural Diffusion
• Geography and
location led the Greek
people to trade with
other groups and
borrow beneficial
ideas
Brief History of Greece
• The first great civilization in Greece and Crete was
the Minoan (2000 BCE – 1400 BCE).
• Around 1400 BCE, the Mycenaean civilization
supplanted the Minoan, and dominated Greece
until about 1100 BCE, when barbarians known as
Dorians invaded.
The Hellenic Era
• Founding of Mycenae on the Peloponnesus
(2000-1250 B.C.)
• Mycenae (Greeks) battled for control of the
Aegean Sea with Troy
Trojan
War
Emergence of the Polis, or Greek City-State
• Starting around 800 BCE a new civilization, the
Hellenic, became dominant in Greece.
• By 750 B.C. city-states began to form
• The Hellenic civilization was composed of two
strands, the Dorian and the Ionian.
• This civilization gave rise to a new form of
social/political organization: the polis.
The Polis
• The polis was an independent, self-governing
city of between 50,000 and 300,000 people.
• Several dozen polises (Greek “poleis”) dotted the
Greek countryside
• In each polis, politics, religion, and social life
were closely intertwined.
City States
• Each city-state, or
polis was different,
having its own form of
government, laws, and
army.
The Polis
• The polis was an independent, self-governing
city of between 50,000 and 300,000 people.
• Several dozen polises (Greek “poleis”) dotted the
Greek countryside
• In each polis, politics, religion, and social life
were closely intertwined.
Types of Government
• Two types of government were used in the Greek
Polises.
• The Dorians generally had an oligarchic form of
government.
• The Greek word oligarchy means rule by the few.
• The Ionians developed the first democratic form
of government.
• Democracy means rule by the people.
Sparta and Athens
• Generally speaking, the Dorians depended upon
agriculture, while the Ionians were seafarers and
merchants.
• The two primary poleis were Sparta and Athens.
• Sparta was Dorian, oligarchic, and had an
agriculture-based economy.
• Athens was Ionian, democratic, and depended on
seafaring and trade.
Athens
• Athens was a
pluralistic society,
which encouraged free
expression, new ideas,
and change.
Athens
• Direct democracy
• All male citizens had
the right to take part in
the lawmaking in the
Assembly.
Sparta
• Sparta was a
Totalitarian State.
• The government
controlled every part
of the lives of its
people.
Sparta
• Spartan society
revolved around
physical training and
the military.
• The government
demanded complete
loyalty and obedience.
The Golden age of Greece
• The Age of Pericles.
(461-429 B.C.)
• growth of democracy
• cultural and scientific
achievement.
A classical civilization is a civilization that
has given the world important ideas and
inventions that people still use today.
Ancient Greek civilization is
considered a classical civilization.
Pericles’ Plan for Athens
• Pericles as Leader
– Skillful politician, inspiring
speaker, respected general
– Dominates life in Athens from
461 to 429 B.C.
Pericles’ Plan for Athens
• Stronger Democracy
– Pericles hires more paid public officials; creates
direct democracy
– Direct democracy—citizens rule directly, not
through representatives
Athenian Democracy
• The ancient Greek city-state of Athens
developed the first democratic government.
• A democracy is a system of government where
citizens participate in government.
• Only free men born in Athens could be
citizens. Women, slaves, and foreigners could
not vote.
The ancient Athenians were the first
people to use voting as a form of
participation in government.
The Ancient
Olympic Games
The
Greeks invented athletic contests and
held them in honour of their gods.
•The
Isthmos Games were staged every two
years at the Isthmos of Corinth.
•The
Pythian Games took place every four years
near Delphi.
•The
most famous games were those at Olympia,
a town in south- western Greece. These took
place every four years.
During
the Olympic Games,
which were were held from
776 B.C. to A.D. 393, all
fighting stopped. No matter
how long or how fiercely a
battle had raged, every soldier
in the battlefield put down his
weapons and traveled to
Olympia to compete in or
watch athletic games designed
to honor Zeus and the other
Greek gods.
Zeus
Once
in
Olympia, the
participants were
no longer soldiers
at all, but athletes.
The
word athlete is from ancient Greek and
means "one who competes for a prize" and was
related to two other Greek words, athlos
meaning contest and athlon meaning prize.
Ancient
Olympia:
reconstruction
The
first day of the festival was devoted to
sacrifices. On the second day, the foot-races, the
main event of the games, took place in the stadium,
a rectangular area enclosed by sloping banks of
earth.
The
Stadium
The Olympic Truce
For
seven days before
and seven days after the
Games (and for the
period of the Games, of
course), no fighting was
allowed. Fighting would
have been considered
disrespectful to the gods.
Soldiers
were allowed to
travel safely from the
battlefields to the Olympic
Games without fear of
being attacked by anyone.
Why
did this happen?
Historians
have found
several reasons:
The
Olympics of ancient Greece weren't exactly
the worldwide spectacle that we have today:

-only Greeks took part

-there were only nine events
Stadium
entrance
1. Boxing
Those
who boxed wore a sort of glove made of
straps of soft ox-hide. They didn't fight people of
similar weight; opponents were chosen at random.
Boxing matches had no time limit and ended only
when one boxer held up his hand or fell to the
ground.
2. Discus
The
throwers of the
discus originally threw a
circular stone and then
later a disc made of iron,
lead, or bronze.
The
movements and
techniques of ancient
discus throwers were
very similar to those of
today's athletes.
3. Equestrian Events
Horse
racing took place in a hippodrome, a large
stadium that contained a racetrack very much like
today's track and field ovals. The athletes would
ride in war chariots that were rigged for either two
or four horses.
A second
type of horse-race involved riders
rather than chariots.
4. Javelin
The Ancient Olympic
Games featured two
kinds of javelin events:
•throwing for distance
•throwing at a target
(for which an
athlete would throw
from horseback at a
specific distance).


5. Jumping
This
was long jump only, and the main
difference in ancient times was that the jumper
carried a weight in each hand. He would swing
these weights as he ran down the ramp, jump,
then release the weights just before he landed.
All of this was designed to increase the distance
of the jump.
halter
es
7. Pentathalon
This
event combined
five other events:
-discus
-javelin
-long jump
-running
-wrestling
The pentathalon
showcased the all-round
athlete.
8. Running
The
three running races were usually very
popular. The three distances were 200 m, 400 m,
and a long-distance race of 1400 to 1800. Various
running races took place, including one in which
athletes wore armor.
9. Wrestling
This,
too, was similar to
wrestling today. The object was
to get an opponent to fall to the
ground. The first man to fall
three times lost. Hitting, as in
boxing, was not allowed, nor
was biting or gouging eyes.
Tripping was allowed,
however. Also, no weight
classes were involved, meaning
that the smallest man might
have to take on the largest man.
It
took 1503 years for
the Olympics to return.
The
first modern
Olympics were held in
Athens, Greece, in 1896.
The man responsible for
its rebirth was a
Frenchman named Baron
Pierre de Coubertin, who
presented the idea in
1894.
Coubertin
Today’s
Olympics include
all countries, both sexes,
and too many sports to
count. Not much like
ancient Greece.
Unfortunately,
the Olympic
Peace doesn’t
exist today
either.
A Greek theater
The ancient Greeks were the first
people to perform plays
and write comedies and dramas.
Drama and History
• Tragedy and Comedy
– Greeks invent drama as an art form; includes chorus,
dance, poetry
– Two forms of drama: tragedy and comedy
• Tragedy—tells story of heroes’ downfall; themes of love, hate,
and war
• Comedy—makes fun of politics and respected people;
slapstick humor
– Greek dramatists include Aeschylus, Euripides,
Aristophanes, Sophicles
• Historians Herodotus and Thucydides record and
study past events
Literature
Homer’s Iliad
• Homer is said to be
the first teller of
adventures of all
times. He was not the
first author because in
his day stories were
passed down---they
were told. He was a
blind man whose date
of birth is unknown.
The Trojan War
• The battle raged for
10 years
• Many great heroes
lost their lives
• A prophet
predicted that Troy
could be captured
only with the help
of Achilles.
10 Years of War
• The Gods are tired of watching men kill each
other, and decide to help end the war. Athena
whispers an idea in the Spartan hero Odysseus’s
ear.
The Trojan Horse
• Odysseus tells them they
will build a huge horse of
wood.
• Some would climb inside
and hide.
• The rest would sail around
the tip of the island, where
they could not be seen.
• One would stay behind
and tell the Trojans that he
had been abandoned by
the Greeks, and that the
horse was an offering to
Athena.
THE ODYSSEY
What is an Epic?
• Epics are long,
narrative poems
that tell the
adventures of
heroes who in some
way embody the
values of their
civilization.
What types of epics are the
Iliad and the Odyssey?
• Iliad – War Epic
• Odyssey – Journey
Modern Day Epics
•
•
•
•
Star Wars
Forrest Gump
Hobbit
Lord of the
Rings
• Wizard of Oz
How were heroes characterized
in Homer’s day?
• Special Aristocrats
or Demigods
• Placed somewhere
between Gods and
ordinary humans.
Classical Greek Philosophy
• The ancient Greeks were the first students of
philosophy. They wanted to know the
meaning of life and how people should live.
• Greek philosophers like Socrates, Plato, and
Aristotle still influence people today.
• Socrates encouraged people to think for
themselves and to ask questions.
Philosophers Search for Truth
• Rise of Great Philosophers
– After the war, thinkers emerge who are called
“lovers of wisdom.” This is from the Greek
words:
• phileo-to love
• sophia—wisdom
– Philosophers believe the universe is subject to
absolute and unchanging laws.
– People could understand these laws through
logic and reason.
Philosophers Search for Truth
• The Sophists
– The word means “the wisest,” so they were proud of
their supposed philosophical knowledge.
– They claimed they could find the answers to all
questions.
– They used rhetoric to win arguments.
– They often charged fees for teaching their skills and for
arguing for others. They might be considered a type of
lawyer of the time.
– Sophist philosopher Protogoras questions the existence
of Greek gods.
Socrates
• Formulated the
Socratic method by
which a person arrives
at the truth through
questions and answers.
Philosophers Search for Truth
• Socrates
– He believes in questioning and teaches through
the method of questioning.
– He is believed to have said “The unexamined
life is not worth living.”
– He is convicted of “corrupting the youth of
Athens and sentenced to death in 399 B.C.
– He dies by drinking hemlock, a slow acting
poison.
The School of Athens
• Socrates advice to his
students was “know
thyself”.
• Socrates was
eventually accused of
corrupting the youth
of Athens.
Socrates was a great Greek philosopher.
He was tried and found guilty of corrupting
the youth of Athens. For encouraging
people to ask questions, he was forced
to commit suicide.
Plato
• Student of Socrates.
• Author of the
Republic, in which he
attacked democracy
and suggested
philosophers govern
the state.
Philosophers Search for Truth
• Plato
– He is a student of Socrates.
– He writes The Republic, about an ideal society
ruled by Philosopher-Kings
– His writings dominate European philosophy for
1,500 years.
Aristotle
• Student of Plato.
Aristotle’s
philosophical and
scientific works
influenced thinking in
Europe for 2000 years.
Philosophers Search for Truth
• Aristotle
– He was a student of Plato.
– He uses rules of logic for argument.
– His work provides the basis for scientific
method, still used today.
– He tutors 13-year-old prince who becomes
Alexander the Great
Architecture
• Constructed many
well-proportioned
marble buildings and
developed three styles
of columns.
Architecture
• The Greeks built temples with beautiful
columns.
• Greek architecture still influences people
today.
• Many government buildings in the United
States are modeled after Greek temples.
The U.S. Supreme Court building
is clearly influenced by the Parthenon.
The Greek Column
• Doric
• Ionic
• Corinthian
Sculpture
• The Discus Thrower.
• Greek sculpture
emphasized beauty
and perfection.
Venus de Milo
• The Greeks idealized
the human body, often
using the gods as their
subjects.
The Greek Mathematicians
• The ancient Greeks also made advances in
mathematics.
• Pythagoras, Euclid, and Archimedes were
important Greek mathematicians.
• The Pythagorean theorem examines the
relationship between the three sides of a
right triangle.
The ancient Greeks gave us many
important mathematical theorems.
Mathematics
• Pythagoras developed a theorem
pertaining to right
triangles.
• Euclid - created a
branch of geometry
based on deductive
reasoning.
Science
• Hippocrates is called
the “father of modern
medicine”.
• Doctors today still
adhere to the ethical
standards of the
Hippocratic Oath
Science
• Archimedes, a
physicist, discovered
the uses of the lever
and pulley.
The Legacy of Classical Greece
• A legacy is defined as something handed down
from the past.
• The ancient Greeks have passed down many
important ideas and inventions to our modern
world.
• Democracy, the use of columns, mathematical
ideas, and philosophies are just a few of the
ideas passed down to modern people from the
ancient Greeks..
Alexander the Great (356-323
B.C.)
• Greece was weakened
by civil war and was
easily conquered by
Macedonia.
• Alexander’s empire
extended from Greece
through India.
Alexander’s Empire
• His rule marked a
blending of Greek and
Middle Eastern
cultures known as the
Hellenistic Period.
Athens-Evolution of Democracy
• Around 1300-700, Athens is ruled by kings.
– Over time it changes to an aristocracy (a few
powerful, elite rule),
– Then a tyranny (one person takes control)
– Finally--by 450--a democracy (rule by many)
Athens-Democratic Principles
• New, democratic ideas emerge from Athenian culture
and society:
– Direct Democracy: Citizens elect their
representatives
– Public Debate: Becomes an art in Athens to discuss
and argue specifics of government
– Duties of the Citizen: All citizens have
responsibilities such as voting, participating in the
government process

Athens famous for being primary basis of
Western Civilization
•
Its democracy wasn’t always constant, and
•
Its form slightly different than what we’re familiar
with.
•
Athens originally a kingdom which morphed into more
of an aristocracy that became unstable, partially due
to laws being oral and arbitrary
•
In 621 BC, Draco was appointed to codify the laws
•
Unpopular move because the laws (both as they
already existed and were codified by Draco, but also
most especially as designed by Draco) were extremely
harsh.

More on Draco…
•
Death was the penalty for even minor crimes, like
stealing vegetables.
•
Draco claimed that this was an appropriate
punishment and if something even worse were
found, he would have applied to greater crimes.
•
Different classes were also treated differently –
debtors could be sold into slavery if in debt to a
higher class.
•
An upside is that murder was punished by the
state instead of by blood-feud vendettas.
•
It is from Draco that the term ‘draconian’ derives.


Solon
The Athenian lawmaker that first established the
basis of civil democracy
•
Draco’s constitution wasn’t working out too well and in
594 BC, Solon revised it (almost completely).
•
He threw out all of Draco’s laws except those
concerning homicide.
•
He had to strike a balance between the concerns of
the aristocracy and those of the poor.
•
The poor were disgruntled at the possibility of
they and their families being sold into slavery if
they were in debt to an aristocrat.
•
The aristocrats wanted to prevent a revolution and
keep their wealth (and their skin).

Some reforms:
•
Debt-slavery was abolished. Anybody who had
been sold into slavery due to debt was liberated.
•
All outstanding debts were abolished.
•
Death penalty only for murder.
•
Classes were based on income, not birth
•
1.
Pentakosiomedimnoi: Those whose land produced 500
bushels per annum
2.
Hippeis: Those who were worth 300 bushels
3.
Zeugitai: Those who were worth 200 bushels
4.
Thetes: Manual laborers.
Move was important because it helped break the
power of hereditary aristocracy

Some reforms cont.
•
Introduced trial by jury
•
Set up new system of government
•
Included a third class in the Boule (council of 400 –
100 from each of the four tribes)
•
After the new laws published and official, he left
Athens for 10 years to avoid temptation to become a
tyrant
though
he was effectively one in making the laws
•
Went touring.
•
Neither the poor nor the rich of Athens happy about
new laws at first
•
the aristocrats had debts to them abolished and the poor

Peisistratus (Hippocrates’s son)
•
Mentee of Solon
•
Became leader of Athens’ poor in 565 BC
•
Initial attempts at seizing control of Athens failed
•
Seized power in 560 BC, Tyrant by 546 BC.
•
Made popular reforms.
•
Reduced taxation
•
Introduced festivals
•
Increased trade and commerce
•
Produced coin money
•
Beautified the city

Peisistratus cont.
•
Had official copies of the Iliad & Odyssey written.
•
Helped the poor, gave them jobs through public works,
•
Poor were satisfied & supported him.
•
Preserved the democratic institutions, but loaded
upper bodies with family & cronies.
•
When he first took power in 560 BC, it was through
cunning deception. Did it again later.
•
Solon urged the Athenians to resist Peisistratus, but
they were too cowardly and Peisistratus too powerful.
•
Solon himself openly opposed Peisistratus.

Cleisthenes

•
Took power with Spartan help after
Peisistratus’s son Hippias was exiled
Reformed the government
•
Previously, there were multiple tribes and there
was conflict among the city folk, hill folk, and
plain folk.
•
Cleisthenes organized ten entirely new tribes each
composed of people from the three regions and of
different family tribes.
•
Broke old tribal or class loyalties & reoriented
people towards the state.
•
Solon’s council of 400 became the Council of 500,
50 people from each new tribe.

Cleisthenes cont.
•
Assembly became main governing body of Athens and
dealt with day to day affairs.
•
Anybody was eligible to serve for one year and it was
expected that all male citizens would serve eventually.
•
Also served as a supreme court / jury, except for
murder cases and religious matters
•
--those remained to the Areopagus)
•
With the establishment of the assembly, Athens
became a representative democracy.
•
The citizens themselves ran it.
Four Reformers
• Draco (621 B.C.)
–Written code of laws
• Solon (594 B.C.)
–Eliminated debt slavery
• Peisistratus (546 B.C.)
–Caters to peasants
• Cleisthenes (508 B.C.)
–Council of 500
Six Steps to Democracy
•
•
•
•
•
•
Outlawed Slavery
Reduce nobility
Redistribute land
Assembly
Council of 500
Ostracism


Women
Women didn’t have the same rights as in Sparta
•
Expected to take care of the home
•
Boys were taught reading and writing and
•
Girls were taught domestic skills by slaves: like
spinning and sewing
•
Not allowed out of the house except nearby travels
•
Main purpose was to produce healthy children
•
Unusual considering that women played an important
role in some religious rites and the city’s patron
goddess was Athena

Women cont.

Women could be educated if they were Hetaerae
•
A bit like Japanese geishas
•
Educated to entertain men with good
conversations at parties
•
Learned physical talents, like dancing
•
Some forced into prostitution
•
Despite public social discrimination, their opinions
were often respected by men
•
Pericles’s mistress Aspasia was a hetaera

Slavery

Practiced throughout Greece and in Athens
•
Rules governing it differed from city-state to citystate.
•
Slaves usually barbarians, typically captured in war.
•
Others were born slaves or their free parents sold
them into slavery for money.
•
•
Considered by some an abomination to enslave a fellow
Greek.
•
Greeks could be slaves, but many free Greeks didn’t like
the idea.
Treatment different than that associated with
American slavery.

•
Slavery cont.
Relatively well-treated in Athens when compared with
other places.
•
Couldn’t slap a slave because you might
inadvertently hit a citizen instead.
•
A master could beat his slave, though.
•
Testimony was taken only under torture.
•
Could buy freedom or earn through fighting in
war.
•
Masters could free their slaves.
•
•
Even then, though, they couldn’t be citizens and
there were still conditions on them.
In other city-states, treatment was much worse.
Sparta
It
was here:
SPART
Sparta- A City of Warriors
• Those who lived around Sparta lived vastly different
lives.
• They were more focused on war and building up
strength to fight
• An early slave revolt causes the Spartans to create
strict laws that demanded public allegiance to the
state.
• Although they did have artistic culture, much of their
energy was spent tuning their military skills
Sparta- Rise of the Oligarchy
• olig (few or little in Greek) arche (rule)
• Rule by a few
• Sparta develops a system where either the city-state
was controlled by a king or by an oligarchy
• Citizens are not encouraged to speak freely, the few
who rule were usually powerful military leaders.

Culture

culture
Sparta was a military
•
The entire Spartan culture went towards developing
and fielding a strong army
•
This was to preserve itself as well as to keep down the
helots
•
Children were taught at home until they were seven
•
At Seven, began their training
•
Exercises for them and all ages were always in
the nude.

Spartan
Military
•Men
married at the age of 20
•Had
to live in barracks for ten years
•If
they wanted to see their wives, they had to escape
•At
the age of 30, men could finally move home and
were full citizens
•Still
ate every meal in the military dining hall

•
MILITARY SERVICE
Spartan mother to her son as he goes off to war:
“Return with your shield, or on it.”
Began military service at 20
•
Soldiers not allowed to trade or hold non-military
occupations.
•
•
These were done by a class called the
periokoi, free non-citizen inhabitants of
Sparta.
•
Exercised full rights and duties of citizens at 30.
•
Weren’t free from military service until 60.
To help ensure the physical superiority of their people,
babies were bathed in wine shortly after birth.
•
If they survived, they were taken to elders.
•
If the elders deemed the baby unfit, it was left exposed


•
Government
Two (hereditary) Kings, Five Ephors, Gerousia &
Apella
Two kings equal in power & exercised various duties.
•
Eventually became less powerful/important,
•
were primarily generals
•
Five Ephors: council elected for one year by the Apella. All
citizens were eligible.
•
Gerousia: (Senate) – a council of 30 elders (over 60 yrs)
•
•
Elected for life by the Apella.
•
Could veto the Apella.
The Apella (lower legislative body).
•
Every citizen over 30 could attend.
The Persian Wars
Athens & Sparta
vs
Persian Empire
The Greeks at War
Between
500 and 400 B.C. the Greeks
fought several wars.
Two
were against the powerful Persian
Empire to the east of Greece.
Then
a civil war broke out among the citystates of Greece.
Why did the Persians invade Greece
In
519 B.C. the Persians
conquered a group of
people who lived in Asia
Minor called the Ionian
Greeks.
In
499 B.C. the
Ionian Greeks asked
the mainland Greeks
to help them rebel
against the Persians.
AGH!
Those
Greeks
will pay for
this
We’re
on
the way
Hel
p!
Athens
sent warships to
help them, but they were
not strong enough to
defeat the Persian army.
This
made the Persian King, Darius, very
angry with Greece.
In
490 B.C. Darius sent 600 ships and thousands of soldiers to invade
Greece. He wanted to punish the Athenians for helping the rebels.
The
Persian army
landed at Marathon,
north of Athens, in
490 B.C.
Persians
greatly
outnumbered Greeks.
The Persians were
amazed at the
strong will of the
small Athenian
force. They had no
horses or archers,
only fierce foot
soldiers.
a few
days, the Persians
decided to attack
Athens by sea.
Persian
Empire
Athens
Maratho
n
Sparta
After

While they were loading their ships, the
Athenians attacked and defeated them.
The
Persians Retreated.
Marathon
The
Greeks sent their fastest runner
Pheidippides to carry home news of the
victory.
He
sprinted 26.2 miles from the battle site
to the city-state of Athens.
He
arrived and said, “Rejoice, we conquer,”
and died from exhaustion
The
Marathon race is named after this
event.
What Happened at Thermopylae?
The
Greek ruler Themistocles knew this was a temporary victory.
He encouraged the Athenians to build up their fleet and prepare for
battle with the Persians.
In
480 B.C. Darius’ son Xerxes sent a
larger force to conquer Greece.
He
sent 200,000 soldiers and nearly
1,000 ships.
By
this time Athens had convinced
Sparta to join them in battle. Twenty
Greek city-states joined together to meet
the Persian invaders.
Sparta
took charge of the army.
Persia Invades Greece
The
Persian army had little trouble as it moved
through northern Greece.
It
came to a narrow mountain pass called
Thermopylae...7,000 Greeks waited for the Persians.
For
several days they stopped the Persian army from
moving forward
Someone
led the Persians behind the Greek army,
the Spartan soldier began to retreat to their ships as
the Persians marched forward.
A
Small Spartan force of about 300 men commanded by King Leonidas,
guarded the mountain pass of Thermopylae.
They
held out heroically against he enormous Persian force for three days.
They
were betrayed when someone told the Persians how to get behind the
army.
They
were defeated, but won valuable time for the rest of the Greeks.
Who won at Salamis?
The
Persians
marched south
after their
victory at
Thermopylae and
destroyed the
city of Athens.
The
Athenians
had already
moved to
Salamis, a small
nearby island.
than 800
Persian ships
attacked the
Athenian navy
near the island.
Thermopylae
Salamis
Athens
More
The
large Persian ships could not maneuver in
the water.The smaller Greek ships destroyed
them.
Results of the Persian Wars
•The
Greek sense of uniqueness was increased.
•Athens
emerged as the most powerful city-state in Greece.
•Athens
takes credit leading the victory.
•Athens
organized the Delian League, an alliance with other Greek
city-states.
•Athens
Empire.
used the league to assert power and build an Athenian
•They
moved the treasury to Athens, and forced people to stay in
the league against their will.
•Persia
still exists.
•Greek
cities in Asia Minor are still controlled by Persia.
Athens in the Age of Pericles
The
wise and skillful leadership of Pericles brought
about a Golden age in Athens.
This
was from about 460 to 429 B.C. and is often
called the Age of Pericles.
•Pericles
believed that all male citizens, regardless of wealth or social class,
should take part in government.
•He
paid salaries to men who held public office.
•This
enabled the poor to serve in the government.
•The
assembly met several times a month and needed at least 6,000
members present to take a vote.
•This
was direct democracy, a large number of citizens took part in the day
to day affairs of the government.
Pericles
stated, “We alone, regard a man who takes no interest in public
affairs, not as harmless, but as a useless character.
Pericles
rebuilt the Acropolis and turned Athens into the cultural center of
Greece.
Age of Pericles
• Elected to lead Athens on and off
for 30 years.
• All citizens can hold office.
– - ½ of population not citizens
• Slaves made government
participation possible.
• City is rebuilt with Delian funds.
• City-states that oppose Athens
are crushed by League.
Athens as Leader
• Athens rebuilds after the Persian War.
• Rather than win by conquest, it tries
diplomacy.
• Many allies together, sharing money, troops
and ships.
Delian League…or Empire?
• League consists of Athens and 140 city-states.
• No member can withdraw without all the others
agreeing. (Athens can thus control)
• 465 BC: Xerxes dies – Persia not a threat.
• League still exists
• Athens takes treasury, spends $ on itself.
• League becomes a financial empire.
The Peloponnesian War
Athens & Delian League
vs
Sparta & the Peloponnesian League
Greek against Greek
Many
Greeks resented the Athenian domination.
The
Greek world split into rival camps.
To
counter the Delian League, Sparta and other
enemies of Athens formed the Peloponnesian
League.
Sparta
encouraged an Oligarchy (government
run by business) in the states of the
Peloponnesian League, and Athens supported
democracy.
A
27 year war broke out in 431 B.C. engulfing all of Greece
Peloponnesian War
•Athens
start.
faced a serious geographic disadvantage from the
•Sparta
was located inland, the Athenian navy was no good
against them.
•When
Sparta invaded Athens, Pericles allowed people from
the countryside to move inside the city.
•Overcrowding
people.
led to a plague that killed a third of the
•Internal
struggles undermined the Democratic government
of Athens.
•Sparta
even allied with Persia, their old enemy, against the
Delian League.
•Finally,
in 404 B.C., with the help of the Persian navy, the
Spartans captured Athens and stripped it of its fleet and
empire.
The Peloponnesian War
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Sparta attacks Athens
Sparta has no Navy
Athenians hide inside walls.
Athens controls the ocean, from Delian League.
Athens gets greedy, attacks Sicily & LOSES.
Sparta builds small navy, stops food from getting in.
Eventually, Athens surrenders.
The Aftermath of War
•The
Peloponnesian war ended Athenian greatness.
•In
Athens Democratic government suffered:
Corruption and selfish interests replaced order.
•Fighting
continued to disrupt the Greek world.
•Sparta
itself suffered defeat at the hands of
Thebes, another Greek city-state.
•Greece
•Cultural
was left vulnerable to invasion.
development was arrested.
Sparta Controls Greece
• Sparta gets respect, seems to rule.
• But other city-states gain control.
Corinth, then Thebes
• Greece is left weak.
• City-States fight, use up resources.
• Greece conquered by Philip II from the region of
Macedon to the North.
• Philip unites, son Alexander takes over…
Macedonia and Alexander the
Great
In
338 B.C. King Phillip II of
Macedonia led his army from the
north and conquered Greece.
After
his death his son, Alexander
the Great, went on to conquer the
entire Greek world.
Macedonia
• Philip II saw the weakened state of Greece
• He valued Greek culture – his son
Alexander was educated in Athens
• He took over Greece before any other power
could
• Was Persia next?
Alexander the Great
• Philip died before attacking
Persia
• His son, Alexander, took
over and Persia fell to his
armies
• Alexander went on to control
areas in the Middle East and
Asia
Alexander’s
Empire
The Parthenon was a Greek temple to the
goddess, Athena. Notice the use of
columns.