Alcohol Metabolism

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Transcript Alcohol Metabolism

Alcohol Metabolism
Break Down and Removal
Small Amounts
Unmetabolized (10%)
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Sweat
Urine
Breath
1st Pass Metabolism
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Occurs in the Stomach
Gender Differences Exist: Men
have a > level of ADH than
women
Early metabolism translates to
lower BAC levels
2nd Pass Metabolism
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Occurs in the Liver
1st liver enzyme--Alcohol
Dehydrogenase (ADH)----->
Acetaldehyde
2nd liver enzyme--Acetaldehyde
Dehydrogenase----> Acetic Acid
Acetic Acid oxidized by body
organs----> CO2 + H2O
Blood Alcohol
Concentration
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THE RATIO OF ALCOHOL IN THE
BLOOD TO THE TOTAL VOLUME
OF BLOOD EXPRESSED AS A
PERCENT
THE PERSUMPTIVE LEVEL OF
INTOXICATION = .10%
FOR A 160 LB. INDIVIDUAL
EACH DRINK = .02% *note size
PROBLEM
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If an individual weighing 160
lbs. consumes 2 drinks per hour,
what will his/her BAC level be at
the end of that time?
SOLUTION
Hour 1: .02 + .02 = .04 - .02 = .02%
Hour 2: .02 + .02 = .04 - .02 + .02 = .04%
Hour 3: .02 + .02 = .04 - .02 + .04 = .06%
Hour 4: .02 + .02 = .04 - .02 + .06 = .08%
Hour 5: .02 + .02 = .04 - .02 + .06 = .10% DUI
ALCOHOL’S EFFECT ON
THE BODY
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DIGESTIVE SYSTEM:
• IRRITANT
• INCREASING AMOUNTS IMPEDE
OR STOP DIGESTION
• PYLORIC VALVE MAY BE
EFFECTED “STUCK”
ALCOHOL’S EFFECT ON
THE BODY
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CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
• MINOR EFFECTS
• HEARTBEAT & BLOOD PRESSURE
LITTLE EFFECT
• VASODILATOR OF SURFACE
VESSELS
• BODY HEAT LOSS (HYPOTHERMIA)
ALCOHOL’S EFFECT ON
THE BODY
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KIDNEYS
• INCREASED URINE OUTPUT
• CONSUMING LARGE QUANTITIES OF
LIQUID
• REDUCES THE PITUITARY HORMONE
ADH (ANTIDIRURETIC HORMONE)
ALCOHOL’S EFFECT ON
THE BODY
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LIVER
• ELIMINATES LIVER PRODUCTION
OF GLUCOSE CREATING
HYPOGLYCEMIA
• BRAIN DEPRIVED OF PROPER
NOURISHMENT
• WEAKNESS, NERVOUSNESS,
SWEATY, HEADACHE, TREMORS
• FATTY LIVER
ALCOHOL’S EFFECT ON
THE BODY
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WHITE BLOOD CELLS
• ACUTE ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION
SUCH AS BINGE DRINKING HAS A
DIRECT EFFECT ON:
• WBC RESERVES
• CHEMOTAXIS
• WBC ADHERENCE TO BACTERIA
ALCOHOL’S EFFECT ON
THE BODY
CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
1 dk/hr BAC
.02 little change
2 dk/hr BAC
.05 drinker high,
judgement center of brain
affected, inhibitions lowered
3 dk/hr BAC
.10 judgement is
nil, muscle coordination
depressed, stagger, slur speech
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ALCOHOL’S EFFECT ON
THE BODY
10 dk/hr
BAC
.20 emotions
erractic, poor memory
1 pint/hr
BAC
.25 - .30
stuporus, judgement long gone,
coordination wiped out, sensory
perception almost gone
1.25 pints/hr BAC .40 coma, brain
center which controls heart &
lungs partially anesthetized
ALCOHOL’S EFFECT ON
THE BODY
.40 - .50 coma
.60
death