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MIS 3150 Data and Info
Management
Lecture 1 - Database fundamentals
Arijit Sengupta
Structure of this quarter
ISOM
MIS3150
1. Design
0. Intro
Database
Fundamentals
Conceptual
Modeling
Relational
Model
2. Querying
Query
Languages
Advanced
SQL
3. Applications
4. Advanced
Topics
Java DB
Applications –
JDBC
Transaction
Management
Data
Mining
Normalization
Newbie
Users
Designers
Developers
Professionals
Today’s buzzwords
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Organizational data cycle
Database
Database Management Systems
Data Independence
Centralized Database Systems
Client-Server Database Systems
Distributed Database Systems
Getting used to Pilot
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Content – lecture notes, etc.
Discussion boards
Dropboxes – for assignments
Groups – form the project groups
Quizzes and exams
Grades
• Finally… Elluminate!
Before we begin – Elluminate!
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• In the Elluminate tab, find the
Elluminate link for today’s lecture
• When you click the link, a small jws
application will download and start
(might take a few minutes)
• Remember – do not click the
microphone button if you are
using the lab computers.
Elluminate practices
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Asking e-questions
Providing e-feedback
Using chat
Using polls and poll results
Using the whiteboard
Poll Question 1
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How would you evaluate your current
knowledge of databases?
A. Very little or no knowledge
B. Some knowledge (e.g., Access)
C. Good knowledge (used an
enterprise DBMS before)
D. Expert (work/worked in database
industry)
Poll Question 2
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How would you evaluate your knowledge of
SQL?
A.Little of no knowledge
B.Have written some very basic SQL with
only Select-from-where
C.Have written mid-level SQL with joins
and aggregate functions
D.Expert – have used nested subqueries
and other advanced features
Using the whiteboard
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Write one thing that you hope you will learn in this course.
Objectives of today’s lecture
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• Know common database terminology
• Understand requirements and uses of
data
• Know the differences between databases
and flat files
• Realize the importance and need for
databases in problem-solving
• Understand the different types of
databases and their differences
Data: A Resource
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• The Success of an organization depends
on efficient use of its resources:
 Buildings, factories, equipment
 Technical know-how
 Human resources
 Data
• Data: An important organizational
resource
Electronic Data
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• Why?
Large volume in a small space
Ease of sharing
Ease of use
Data analysis
• How?
File-based system versus databases
Legacy (File-based) Systems
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Uncontrolled data redundancy,
Data inconsistency
Poor data sharing
Difficult to keep up with changes
Record format Vs. user requirements
Programs Vs. record format
Low productivity
High maintenance cost
So what is a database?
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• According to Oxford English
Dictionary:
“A structured collection of data held in
computer storage; esp. one that
incorporates software to make it
accessible in a variety of ways”
• So does it make pretty much every
collection of data a “database”?
The Database
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• The data itself PLUS The data
definitions (metadata), applications,
queries and visualizations
Database Approach
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• Non-redundant collection of logically related
facts
 representing some aspect of the real world
 the data itself plus the data definitions
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Permits sharing
Consistent representation for each piece of data
Avoids (minimizes) redundancy
Allows different user views
Users are isolated from most changes
Why Databases?
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• Independence from representation
formats
• Control redundancy and consistency
• Ensure integrity/security
• Better scalability
• Allow ad hoc access
• Better maintenance
• Better concurrency
Data Independence
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• Does data have to be part of programs?
• Do we need to change one if the other
changes?
• Three-tier architecture of databases
View
What the users see
Conceptual
How we model data
Physical
How data is stored
Access Flexibility
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Easy to ask ad-hoc questions
No need for separate codes
User-friendly interface
Command-based (e.g., SQL)
Graphical (e.g., QBE)
Data Integrity
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• Ensures that the stored data are
consistent and correct
• Easy to define global rules
customer_age > 21 years
number_of_credits < 18
• Can allow multiple users to access
data without compromising on data
integrity
Data Security
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• Access definition
Global
Local
• Uniform access authorization
Data Redundancy
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Data need not be replicated
Less wastage of storage space
Less data anomaly
Reduced and controlled redundancy
Tighter control of replicated data
Standardization
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• Everybody talks the same talk.
Less chance of misunderstanding
Easier to interpret other’s data
• Easier to merge
Useful when several organizations
combine to form one.
Productivity and
Maintenance
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• Increase in productivity
 User-friendly interface
 Independence from specific data structure
• Easier maintenance
 Less code to maintain
• The DBMS is the bulk of the code.
• Ad-hoc queries make it possible to make do with
much less code.
 The vendor makes revisions of the DBMS.
• Economy of scale
Productivity vs. Maintenance
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Prod-DB
Prod-FL
Mnt-DB
Mnt-FL
Start
1st week 2nd week 3rd week 4th week
Disadvantages of Databases
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Software complexity
Processing inefficiency
Need for co-ordination
Organizational impact
Risk
DBMS
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• A Specialized piece of software that
sits between the data and its users.
Database
Management
System
Intension + Extension
Data
DBMS Functions and Users
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• Four major uses of a DBMS package
 Database Development, Interrogation, Maintenance,
and
 Application Development
• Automated tools for design, query, and
application development
• Database users
 Database administrators ( DBAs )
 Database designer
 End Users
Summary
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• Data is essential for an organization
• A Database is usually the most
effective way of storing and
organizing data
• File-based Vs. database systems
• Database system properties
• Types of database systems