Spain - mrmilewski

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Transcript Spain - mrmilewski

Revolutions 12/17/12
• OBJECTIVE: Examine “Matter of Fact”.
MCSS WH-6.1.5
• I. Administrative Stuff
• II. The Day the Universe Changed
-questions on episode#4 “Matter of Fact”
• III. Homework due Friday 12/21/12
1.) Read Ch#15 sec#1 p.372-378
-Answer questions (1-6)* p.378
2.) Read Ch#15 sec#3 p.382-386
- Answer questions (1-7)* p.386
*Pick 4 questions of your choice
• IV. Return of Chapter#14 Test (if time allows)
Revolutions 12/18/12
• OBJECTIVE: Examine the Voyages of Discovery.
MCSS WH-5.2.1
• I. Journal#7 pt.A
-Examine the Picture on p.375
-Answer the caption question on p.375
• II. Journal#7 pt.B
-notes on explorers
• III. Homework due Friday 12/21/12
1.) Read Ch#15 sec#1 p.372-378
-Answer questions (1-6)* p.378
2.) Read Ch#15 sec#3 p.382-386
- Answer questions (1-7)* p.386
*Pick 4 questions of your choice
Why Portugal is First
• They were the first united modern day nation in Europe.
• In the early 1400s they were strong & stable enough to
expand into Muslim N. Africa.
• Boundaries have been the same since 1492.
Prince Henry
• Known as Henry the
Navigator, heard tales of a
mysterious very rich
Christian Africa.
• He hoped to form an
alliance against the Muslims
and gain access to African
• They set out along the West
African Coast and slowly
began to travel further and
further south.
Prester John
From Wikipedia: The legends of Prester John (also
Presbyter John), popular in Europe from the 12th through
the 17th centuries, told of a Christian patriarch and king
said to rule over a Christian nation lost amidst the Muslims
and pagans in the Orient. Written accounts of this kingdom
are variegated collections of medieval popular fantasy.
Reportedly a descendant of one of the Three Magi, Prester
John was said to be a generous ruler and a virtuous man,
presiding over a realm full of riches and strange creatures,
in which the Patriarch of Saint Thomas resided. His
kingdom contained such marvels as the Gates of Alexander
and the Fountain of Youth, and even bordered the Earthly
Paradise. Among his treasures was a mirror through which
every province could be seen, the fabled original from
which derived the "speculum literature" of the late Middle
Ages and Renaissance, in which the prince's realms were
surveyed and his duties laid out.[1]
At first, Prester John was imagined to be in India; tales of
the "Nestorian" Christians' evangelistic success there and of
Thomas the Apostle's subcontinental travels as documented
in works like the Acts of Thomas probably provided the
first seeds of the legend. After the coming of the Mongols
to the Western world, accounts placed the king in Central
Asia, and eventually Portuguese explorers convinced
themselves they had found him in Ethiopia. Prester John's
kingdom was the object of a quest, firing the imaginations
of generations of adventurers, but remaining out of reach.
He was a symbol to European Christians of the Church's
universality, transcending culture and geography to
encompass all humanity, in a time when ethnic and
interreligious tension made such a vision seem distant.
Bartholomeu Dias
• In 1488 he was blown off
course in a violent storm.
• He became the first
European to round the
horn of Africa.
• The place was named the
Cape of Good Hope.
• This opened the sea route
to Asia.
Vasco da Gama
• In 1497, he led four ships
around the Cape of Good
Hope & explored the East
coast of Africa.
• Along the way they
picked up an Indian pilot
who led them across the
Indian Ocean to the rich
spice port of Calicut.
• The 10 month voyage
was costly.
-half the ships were lost
-many sailors died of hunger,
thirst, and scurvy (lack of
vitamin C)
The Return to Portugal
• While in Calicut he
bought spices and when
back in Portugal he sold
them making a profit of
• He quickly outfitted a
new fleet and went back.
• He forced a treaty of
friendship with the Hindu
ruler & left Portuguese
merchants there to buy
spices when prices were
low & store them until the
fleet returned.
• Seeing their neighbor
getting rich from trade,
Spain wanted in on the
• Christopher Columbus, an
Italian, sought backing
for his plan to go to the
Indies by going west from
Portugal beginning in the
• In 1492 he convinced
Ferdinand & Isabella to
finance his voyage.
Columbus’ Four Trips to the Indies
Christopher Columbus
• He made a few
• 1.) He greatly
the size of the
• 2.) He had no idea
that there were
two continents in
the way.
Christopher Columbus
• He set sail August 3, 1492 with 3 ships: Nina,
Pinta, & Santa Maria.
• He carried a letter to the ruler of China and an
interpreter who spoke Arabic.
• On October 12th land was sighted.
• They were probably in the Bahamas.
• They spent several months exploring the islands
of the Caribbean & looking for China & Japan.
• He thought he was in the East Indies* so he
called the people Indians.
• He returned to the “East Indies” three more
Amerigo Vespucci
• From Wikipedia: He played a senior
role in two voyages which explored the
east coast of South America between
1499 and 1502.
• On the second of these voyages he
discovered that South America extended
much further south than before known
by the Europeans.
• This convinced him that this land was
part of a new continent, a bold
contention at a time when other
European explorers crossing the
Atlantic thought they were reaching
• In 1507, Martin Waldseemüller
produced a world map on which he
named the new continent "America"
after Vespucci's first name, Amerigo.
Line of Demarcation
• Spain & Portugal both
claimed rights to the
lands Columbus
• In 1493, Pope Alexander
VI stepped in to keep the
• Spain had the right to
non-European lands west
of the line Portugal to the
• The Treaty of Tordesillas
in 1494 moved the line.
Revolutions 12/19/12
• OBJECTIVE: Examination of The History of
Christmas. MCSS WH-6.3.1
• I. Administrative Stuff
-distribution questions
• II. Film: Christmas Unwrapped
-questions on film about the History of Christmas
Revolutions 12/20/12
• OBJECTIVE: Examine the Voyages of Discovery.
MCSS WH-5.2.1
• I. Journal#8 pt.A
-Examine the Map on p.376-377
-Answer questions (1-3) p.377
• II. Journal#8 pt.B
-notes on explorers
• III. Homework due TOMORROW!
1.) Read Ch#15 sec#1 p.372-378
-Answer questions (1-6)* p.378
2.) Read Ch#15 sec#3 p.382-386
- Answer questions (1-7)* p.386
*Pick 4 questions of your choice
Ferdinand Magellan
• He led an expedition to
find El Paso (not the city
in Texas) but the fabled
passage through the
Americas to the Indies.
• He was Portuguese, but
he was financed by the
King of Spain.
• He took 5 ships & two
years worth of supplies.
• He left on Sept. 20, 1519.
• During the trip he was
faced with storms,
mutiny, and scurvy.
Ferdinand Magellan
Sept 20, 1519 left Spain
November 1520 crossed at Strait of Magellan into Pacific Ocean
March 1521 anchored in the Philippines.
April 27, 1521 Magellan killed
Sept 8, 1522 eighteen half dead sailors aboard one ship returned to
English, Dutch, & French
• Spain & Portugal had
divided the world
among themselves,
other Europeans
wanted in on the
• The Dutch, English, &
French looked for the
fabled Northwest
Europeans in India
• The first Europeans to reach India were
Portuguese merchants in the late 1400’s
• The Dutch, French, and British traders
soon followed.
• The powerful Mughal emperors kept tight
control over the Europeans, but as the
empire declined the Europeans turned to
The struggle for power
• With huge profits at stake, the European powers
fought for control of India as Mughal power
• In the 1600’s the Dutch broke the Portuguese 100
year trade monopoly.
• The British East India Company, establish in
1600 wound up taking over the subcontinent
through the use of clever diplomacy and military
defeat of the French.
British East India Company Rule in India
• Robert Clive- led British
forces in a drive that
successfully defeated the
• He appointed local rulers
that favored the interests
of the company.
• He encouraged disunity
between Hindus &
Muslims which kept local
rulers from uniting
against British rule.
• In 1858 Indian became a
colony of Great Britain.
Revolutions 12/21/12
• OBJECTIVE: Examine the voyages of the Dutch.
MCSS WH-5.2.1
• I. Journal#9 pt.A
-Examine the Map on p.384
-Answer questions (1-3) p.384
• II. Journal#9 pt.B
-notes on the Dutch
• III. Explorer Video
The Dutch
• They (the Netherlands)
were the first Europeans
to challenge Portuguese
domination of Asia.
• Through royal marriages
it fell under Spanish rule
in the early 1500s.
• Later Protestant northern
provinces won
Sea Power
• In 1599 a Dutch fleet
returned home from
Asia with pepper &
• Investors received
over 100% profit.
• They charted routes
that bypassed
Portuguese routes.
Dutch Masters
Cape Town
• At the southwestern tip of
Africa the Dutch built the
Cape Town settlements
where they could repair &
resupply their ships.
• In 1602 the Dutch East
India Company was
formed by wealthy Dutch
Dutch East India Company
• In 1641 the captured
Malacca from the
Portuguese & opened
trade with China
• They were able to
enforce a monopoly of
the Spice Islands &
controlled trade with
Europe & much of
Southeast Asia.
• They used military
force to further their
trade goals.
Dutch Force
• They also forged closer
relationships with local
• Many merchants married
Asian women.
• Trade brought the Dutch
enormous wealth &
Amsterdam prospered.
• In the next century, the
British & French
contributed to a decline in
Dutch wealth & power.
• Magellan claimed the
Philippines for Spain in
• Within 50 years they had
conquered & colonized
the archipelago & named
it after the King, Phillip
• The Spanish converted
the people to Christianity
(Catholic) and became
key to the wealth of the
Trade Routes
Spanish Trade Routes
• The Spanish took
silver mined in
Mexico & Peru
and sent it to the
• From there they
used it to buy
stuff from China.
Conquest in the Americas
• Spain & Portugal
competed for power
in central & south
• France, England, and
the Dutch in North
America (Spain too)