League of Nations

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Transcript League of Nations

The Treaty of Versailles &
Wilson’s Fourteen Points
Lives Lost…
Allied Powers
 England – 750,000
(1.5 million wounded)
 France – 1.4 million
(2.5 million wounded)
 Belgium – 50,000
 Italy – 600,000
 Russia – 1.7 million
 America – 116,000
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TOTAL: 4.6 MILLION
Central Powers
 Germany – 2 million
 Austria-Hungary – 1.2
million
 Turkey – 325,000
 Bulgaria – 100,000
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TOTAL: 3.6 MILLION
Total war-related deaths: 8.5 million
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France, Belgium, Russia devastated by fighting
English endured hunger and bombing
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the idea of a 'lost generation'...
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According to one estimate, 30.58% of all men aged
20 to 24 in 1914 and 28.15% of those aged 13 to 19
were erased from history
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John Stevenson, 'Social History of Britain‘
Then comes the flu….
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"The 1918 has gone: a year momentous as the termination of
the most cruel war in the records of the human race; a year
which marked, the end at least for a time, of man's destruction
of man; unfortunately a year in which developed a most fatal
infectious disease causing the death of hundreds of thousands
of human beings. Medical science for four and one-half years
devoted itself to putting men on the firing line and keeping
them there. Now it must turn with its whole might to
combating the greatest enemy of all--infectious disease,"
(12/28/1918).
A children’s nursery rhyme - 1918
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I had a little bird,
Its name was Enza.
I opened the window,
And in-flu-enza.
Spanish Flu Strikes
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In the 2 years that the Spanish Flu raged, 20%
of the world was infected
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Most deadly for people aged 20-40
Unusual – usually the flu kills the old and young
Bodies piled up as there was a lack of graves,
coffins, and health care workers
Similar to the Black Death in the Middle
Ages!
How do we make peace now?
Wilson’s Fourteen Points
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Wilson came to Europe as a hero – all nations
welcomed and thought of his as a hero
January 18, 1918  Wilson delivers his
Fourteen Points speech before Congress
Split into three groups of clues:
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Things that must be addressed to prevent the start
of another war
Boundary changes
League of Nations
“How to Prevent War” by Wilson
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
No secret treaties between nations
Freedom of the seas for all
Tariffs should be lowered/eliminated to foster
free trade
Arms (military) should be reduced to the
lowest possible point
Colonial policies should account for the
interests of colonial people (as well as
imperial powers)
The Idea of Self Determination
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Wilson believed that nations should be
established “along historically established
lines of nationality”
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Ethnic identities should determine their own
nations OR determine the nations they want to
join
League of Nations
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A forum for nations to discuss and settle their
grievances without having to go to war
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Kind of like an outdated grandfather of the
United Nations
The "Big 4" of the Paris Peace
Conference of 1919 were (left to right)
Lloyd George of England, Orlando of
Italy, Clemenceau of France, and
Woodrow Wilson of the United States.
Georges Clemenceau of France
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French Premier
Germany should be brought to its knees so
that she could never start a
war again.
Germany should never be
allowed to invade France
again
David Lloyd George of Great Britain
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British Prime Minister
Really cared more about Russia & Communism in
Western Europe
If he had come across as being
soft on Germany, he would
have been speedily voted out
of office. The British public
was after revenge
"Hang the Kaiser" and
"Make Germany Pay“ were
his campaign slogans
Woodrow Wilson of America
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American President
Stunned by the savagery of
the Great War
Germany should be punished
but in a way that would lead to
European reconciliation as
opposed to revenge.
In America, there was a growing
desire for the government to adopt a
policy of isolation and leave Europe
to its own devices
Vittorio Orlando of Italy
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Italian Prime Minster
Wanted control of
Austrian-held territory
The Big Four Control the Peace Talks
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People NOT invited to the Peace Talks:
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Any of the Central Powers
Russia (because it was controlled by Communists)
Smaller Allied nations
Instead, the Big Four – Clemenceau, Lloyd George,
Orlando, and Wilson – controlled the terms of the
Treaty
Wilson had to give up most of his 14 Points in
order to set up the League of Nations
Armistice
Signed: Nov. 11, 1918
 6 months to discuss and conclude
treaty: June 28, 1919
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Provisions of the Treaty
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Established 9 new nations
Shifted boundaries of other nations
Carved 5 areas out of the Ottoman Empire
and gave them to England and France
Germany was not allowed to have an army
Required Germany give Alsace-Lorraine to
France
Reparations – Germany must pay $33 billion
to the Allies
Germany’s Punishment: Military
Reduction
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W Rhine, 30 Miles East Demilitarized (Rhineland)
Army no more 100,000
Navy 15,000, no more 6 (battleships, cruisers and
destroyers), 12 torpedo boats, 2 submarines
Prohibit production or import of weapons, military
gasses, tanks, aircrafts and submarines
abolish conscription
What countries lost territory?
Weakness of the Treaty:
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Humiliated Germany with the war guilt clause
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Political/military leaders were tried as war criminals
There was no way for Germany to pay the
reparations
Russia lost more land than Germany did and was cut
out of the Peace Talks
Treaty ignored the claims of colonized people for
self-determination (part of Wilson’s 14 Points!)
Opposition to the Treaty
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US politicians thought the treaty was too
harsh
Exchanged one set of colonial rulers for
another
Ethnic groups protested the official “selfdetermination”
An International Organization
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Name: League of Nations
Purpose: arbitrate international disputes,
therefore avoid future wars
International labor organization
International commission to control joint
territory
League of Nations
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Many US politicians attacked the League of
Nations because it was not isolationist
Wilson refused to compromise any of the
terms of the League
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Wilson set out on an 8,000 mile speaking tour
Oct 2, 1919  Wilson has a serious stroke and is
bed bound / paralyzed for two months
League of Nations
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The US Congress failed to ratify the Treaty
of Versailles / League of Nations proposal
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Henry Cabot Lodge had made amendments to the
original proposal, which divided the vote even
more
US signed a separate treaty with Germany
in 1921 when Wilson was no longer president
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June of 1921, President Warren Harding
approved a joint congressional resolution
proclaiming the war with the Central Powers
ended, and later signed a separate peace treaty
New Nations and Empires:
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Russian Empire  Bolshevist Russia
German Empire  Weimar Germany
Austro-Hungarian Empire  Austria AND
Hungary
Ottoman Empire  Turkey
The League of Nations
"Any war of threat of war is a matter of concern to the whole League and the
League shall take action that may safe guard peace.”
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Assembly (all); Council (special countries); Int’l Court; Labor Organization &
others
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Membership changed, 58 highest: No Russia or Germany until late 20s, early 30s
America was never a part of it
Dealing with Problem Countries
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It could call on the states in dispute to sit down and discuss the problem in an
orderly and peaceful manner
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If the states in dispute failed to listen to the Assembly’s decision, the League
could introduce economic sanctions.
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If this failed, the League could introduce physical sanctions.
Pros of the Treaty
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Bring countries together
More transparent
Possibly stop future conflicts without war
(economic sanctions)
Not obligated/forced into conflicts – still your
choice to send troops
Cons of the Treaty
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Limit American
independence?
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International labor board…
Goes against Washington’s
Farewell Address (entangling
alliances)
Involve US in foreign issues
like WWI (structure)
Not effective? (structure)
"The United States is the world's
best hope," Lodge once said, "but...
if you tangle her in the intrigues of
Europe, you will destroy her
powerful good, and endanger her
very existence... Beware how you
trifle with your marvelous
inheritance -- this great land of
ordered liberty. For if we stumble
and fall, freedom and civilization
everywhere will go down in ruin."
The League Membership
Territory Taken: A-H, Russia,
Germany
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Germany - 13% territory, over 1/10 of
population
Alsace-Lorraine given back to France;
Belgium; Danzig Free
Saar under international control until 1935
New Countries: Finland, Estonia, Latvia,
Lithuania, Yugoslavia, Austria, Hungary,
Poland
Germany’s Punishment: Monetarily
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Pay reparations for all civilian damages
5 billion initially then rest of 30 years (about
11.3 billion)
Germany’s Punishment: Taking Blame
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“war guilt clause”- take responsibility for
causing WWI
Leaders, Wilhelm II, tried as war criminals
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http://www.cyberlearningworld.com/lessons/ushistory/ww1/preww1.ht
m
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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:German_loss
es_after_WWI.svg
Nations that gained territory after World War I
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Yugoslavia (as the successor state of the Kingdom of Serbia)
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Romania
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Greece
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France
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Italy
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Denmark
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Belgium
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Poland
Nations that lost territory after World War I
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Bolshevist Russia (as the successor state of the Russian Empire)
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Weimar Germany (as the successor state of the German Empire)
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Austria (as the successor state of Cisleithania and the Austro-Hungarian Empire)
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Hungary (as the successor state of Transleithania and the Austro-Hungarian Empire)
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Turkey (as the successor state of the Ottoman Empire)
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Bulgaria