Wilson`s 14 Points and the Peace

download report

Transcript Wilson`s 14 Points and the Peace

What is the purpose of a
peace treaty?
How to Solve the Peace
What were the longterm and immediate
causes of war?
Explain briefly.
How should a peace
treaty have resolved
these problems?
Peace Without Victory
Wilson’s Plan For Peace
Following the first year of The Great War, President
Woodrow Wilson began to explain his plans for the
peace that would follow the war. Most widely known
was his message of a "peace without victory" most
completely explained in his "Fourteen Points" speech
before Congress on 8 January 1918.
Wilson’s Fourteen Points
•American President, Woodrow
Wilson, anticipated the end of
the war and hoped to inspire a
peace plan that would solve the
long-term problems that caused
the war (MAIN).
•He drafted a proposal called
“The Fourteen Points”
•He brought his proposal to
France for the treaty conference.
Ideals in Wilson’s Fourteen Points
The first five points consisted mainly the idea of an "open" world
after the war. Simply translated, these represented:
• Arms reduction
• Non-punishment
• Freedom of the Seas
• No secret treaties
• Free and open trade with the elimination of protective
tariffs
The next eight points focused mainly upon
the idea of granting "self-determination"
(personal independence of all peoples)–
freedom, independence, self-government - to
national minorities in Europe. Self
determination
Most significant, however, was point number
fourteen which stressed a "general
association of nations" to ensure "political
independence and territorial integrity to great
and small states alike." Formation of the
League of Nations
What did
Wilson hope
the League of
Nations would
accomplish?
In 1919, the Big 4 met in Paris to negotiate the Treaty
(Lloyd George of Great Britain, Vittorio Orlando of Italy,
George Clemenceau of France, and Woodrow Wilson of the U.S.)
Treaty of Versailles
•Germany blamed,
demilitarized, forced to
pay reparations
•Treaty written without
German representation
•Anschluss (Combining
of Germany and Austria)
forbidden forever
•League of Nations
created but Germany not
admitted
Treaty of Versailles
•Map altered with little regard for ethnic or true national
boundaries
•Poland created out of Germany and Russia
•France given the Alsace Lorraine province
•Czechoslovakia created out of Germany and AustriaHungary
•Yugoslavia created by combining Montenegro, Bosnia,
Serbia, Croatia, and other small territories
•Austria-Hungary broken up
•England received mandates territorial holdings in the Middle
East from the Ottoman Empire
Effects of the
Treaty of Versailles
Great Britain “forgot” about
its promises to both Arab
Muslims and Jews to
create an independent
homeland for them in their
holy lands
•The United States
of America was the
only “Big 4” nation
not to ratify the
Treaty of
Versailles.
•America signed its
own treaty with
each warring
nation between
1918 and 1922.
•WHY?
Wilson’s Lack of Support
•The USA became isolationist after
the war.
•The US Senate disagreed with the
League of Nations because they
thought that by becoming a
member they would lose their
independence and get drawn into
international disputes.
•The Senate also felt that Wilson
was partisan (favoring one political
party) and they disliked him.
Lodge vs. Wilson
Battle Over the Treaty at
Home
Republicans opposed the treaty
Isolationists opposed the treaty
Isolationists opposed the League of
Nations
Wilson toured the USA to “sell” the treaty. . .
The Aftermath
• Wilson Suffers a Stroke
• The Senate rejected the Treaty of
Versailles
• The U.S. would not sign a treaty with
Germany until 1921
• The U.S. never joined the League
1. What is the
historical
subject?
2. What does this
cartoon imply
about the
League of
Nations and the
Treaty of
Versailles?
Will it Survive?
1. Is the artist
optimistic that there
will be lasting
peace?
2. What clues provide
the evidence to
support your
answer to number
1?
3. How has this artist
foreshadowed
World War 2 and the
Cold War?
World War I in Global History
Rise of Fascism
Great Depression
World War II
World War I in Global History
European Dominance Appeared
Undiminished
Overriding Significance - Began
Undermining of Europe’s
Supremacy
Overseas Investment Declined
American Industrial Rise - Global
Leadership Crossed the Atlantic