Power point on Naming - mvhs

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Transcript Power point on Naming - mvhs

Naming the Inorganic
Compounds
Kavita Gupta
Classification of Compounds for Naming Purposes
Ionic
compounds
• Formed by a
metal and a
nonmetal or a
polyatomic ion
• Generally
solids in the
natural state
• Ex: NaCl,
K2SO4, PbCO3,
ZnS, KMnO4
Molecular
Compounds
• Made up
exclusively of
nonmetals
• Generally
liquids or
gases in
natural state
• Ex: NO2, CO2,
P2O5, H2O
Acids
• Begin with a H
• Generally
present as
aqueous
solutions or
gases
• HCl, HClO4,
H2CO3, HNO3,
HC2H3O2,
HCOOH
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Naming the Ionic Compounds
Ionic Compoundsmade of a cation
(either from group 1,
group 2 or transition
metals) and an anion
(monoatomic or
polyatomic anion)
Anions are named
the same for any
ionic compounds.
Monoatomic anion
ends in –ide and
polyatomic anion is
named just like the
name of the
polyatomic anion.
Cation from Transition
Metal
Old Way of Naming:
Lower of the two
charges cation name
ends in –ous and higher
of the two charges
cation name ends in –
ic.
Stock Way:Name the
cation as its element,
followed by its oxiation
number (Charge) within
parenthesis.
Cation from Group 1
(alkali metal) or Group
2 (alkaline earth)
Name the cation as the
element.
Practice on Naming Ionic Compounds
Ionic
Compounds
with Cations
from Group 1
and 2
Na2SO4
KClO4
Ionic
Compounds
with cations
from
transition
metals
PbS
Cu(NO3)2
Criss Cross Method for writing the formula for an ionic
compound given its name
Criss-cross method involves bringing the valency (charge) of one
element down as a subscript next to the other element or
polyatomic ion.
•Practice writing the formula of the following compounds
by using the criss-cross method.
Sodium
Sulfide
Potassium
Nitrate
Ammonium
Carbonate
Cupric
Nitride
Ferrous
Sulfate
Naming the Molecular Compounds
There are two ways of
naming the molecular
compounds
Prefix Way
Stock Way
Ex: N2O5–
Use prefixes mone-, di-,
tri- etc. to indicate
number of atoms of
each element. Do not
use mono before the
first element.
Nitrogen (V) Oxice
Ex. N2O5- Di
nitrogen
Pentoxide
CO2- Carbon
Dioxide
CO2- Carbon (IV) Oxide
CO – Carbon (II) Oxide
Write name of the first
element followed by its
oxidation state in
parenthesis
Naming the Acids
To name an acid, first
check to see if it is an
oxy acid or not.
Presence of Oxygen
in the chemical
formula of an acid
indicates an oxyacid.
Ex. HCl is not an
oxyacid but HClO4 is
an oxyacid.
Oxyacids: Anion
ending decides the
name of the acid. If
anion ends in –ate,
then acid is –ic acid, if
anion ends in –its,
then acid is –ous acid.
To name an acid
without oxygen, start
naming with Hydrofollowed by the name
of anion ending in –ic
Acid.
Ex. HClO4 Perchloric
Acid (anion
perchlorate)
Ex. HClO3 Chloric
Acid (anion Chlorate)
Ex. Ex. HCl
Hydrochloric acid
Naming of Complex Compounds
Name cation first followed by anion. Within a complex,
transition metal is named first with its charge listed within
parenthesis, followed by ligands and then anion. If complex is
anion, then its name ends in –ate.
• Please go back to Ch 2 in the ibook for details on the
naming of the complexes or coordination
compounds.
Naming of the Hydrates
• Hydrates are ionic compounds that have loosely
attached water molecules to them. Ex. CuSO4.
5H2O.
• To name the hydrates, name the ionic compound
first and then use the prefix that indicates the
number of water molecules attached.
• Ex. The name of CuSO4.5H2O is Cupric Sulfate
pentahydrate or Copper (II) Sulfate pentahydrate.
Common Cations with Variable Valency
Cuprous, Cupric
Copper
Cu
Cu +
Cu 2+
Cobaltous, Cobatic
Cobalt
Co
Co 2+
Co 3+
Ferrous, Ferric
Iron
Fe
Fe 2+
Fe 3+
Plumbous, Plumbic
Lead
Pb
Pb 2+
Pb 4+
Mercurous, Mercuric
Mercury
Stannous, Stannic
Tin
Hg Hg2 2+ Hg 2+
Sn
Sn 2+
Sn 4+
Common Polyatomic Ions
Ammonium
NH4 +
Chlorate
ClO3 -
Thiosulfate
S2O3 2-
Nitrate
NO3 -
Perchlorate
ClO4 -
Thiocynate
SCN -
Phosphate
PO4 3-
Chlorite
ClO2 -
Peroxide
O2 2-
Hydroxide
OH -
Hypochlorite
ClO -
Sulfite
SO3 2-
Nitrite
NO2 -
Phosphite
PO3 3-
Bisulfate
(hydrogen
sulfate)
HSO4 -
Sulfate
SO4 2- Permanganate MnO4 -
Carbonate
CO3 2-
Acetate
Chromate
CrO4 2-
Bicarbonate
(hydrogen
carbonate)
Dichromate
Cr2O7
2-
Cyanide
C2H3O2 CH3COO
HCO3 -
CN -
Oxide
O
2-