End of WWI

download report

Transcript End of WWI

End of WWI
11-11-1918
The goal is to create a peace treaty to
prevent future wars
The Big Four
• France (Clemenceau)
Germany should be brought to its knees so that it can never start a war again
• Britain (George)
Didn’t want to be too soft on Germany, but felt Europe needed a strong Germany to as
a barrier to communism in Russia
• USA (Wilson)
Stunned by the savagery of the Great War. Wanted to avoid future wars. Wanted
Germany punished, but also wanted European reconciliation opposed to revenge.
• Italy (Orlando)
Frequently left out of important negotiations. Wanted help rebuilding Italy.
• What is the punishment for Germany?
• How should this country be punished economically?
• The allies made bargains with countries such as Italy
and Japan promising territory after the war in return
for their support-Do they have to stick to that?
• What territorial changes should occur?
• What military restrictions should be implemented so
that another world war does not occur?
• Are there any other provisions you want to include?
WORLD PEACE is the goal!
Wilson’s 14 Points
• Wilson takes a look at causes and tries to fix
them. First 5 points:
– No Alliances
– Freedom of seas
– Free trade
– Arms reduction(militarism)
– Fair policies between imperial and colonial
nations(imperialism and nationalism)
14 Points continued
• Next 8 deal with boundary changes based on
ethnic identities.
The League of Nations
• Purpose: to promote international peace and
security
• The toll of WWI encourages the prevention of
future catastrophes
• (Germany was excluded until 1926)
Treaty of Paris
•
•
•
•
•
Broke up Ottoman Empire and Austria Hungary
Established 9 new nations
Germany returns Alsace-Lorraine to France
Germany is essentially disarmed
German army reduced to a maximum of 100,000
soldiers, navy also reduced
• Forbidden to build major weapons of aggression
Weaknesses of Treaty
• Humiliates & bankrupts Germany
– War-Guilt clause-forced to accept total blame for
the war. Most Germans HATED treaty.
– Reparations-$33 billion to Allies
– Downsize their military and navy
• All of Germany’s colonial possessions were
confiscated, making them unable to pay.
• Bolsheviks in Russia/Soviet Union left out
– Russia suffered most casualties during WWI
– Lost more territory than Germany
– Stalin is determined to regain lost territory
What to do with colonies?
• Germany stripped of all colonies to help pay
reparations
• Ignored self-determination claims of Asian
peoples
• Ho Chi Minh-wanted independence for French
Indochina/Vietnam. Appealed to President
Wilson who ignored him
America’s reaction
• Americans opposed the Treaty, they felt it was
too harsh.
• Americans also disagreed about the League of
Nations. Most wanted a policy of isolation.
What circumstances at this time would
eventually lead many Germans to support Adolf
Hitler?
Political instability in Europe. Militant fascist
organizations seized Germany, Italy and Spain.
Hitler represented a chance for vengeance.
Woodrow Wilson in an address to the
U.S. senate
“It must be a peace without victory….Victory
would mean peace forced upon the loser; a
victor’s terms imposed upon the vanquished. It
would be accepted in humiliation, under duress,
at an intolerable sacrifice, and would leave a
sting, a resentment, a bitter memory upon
which the terms of peace would rest, not
permanently, but only as upon quicksand. Only a
peace between equals can last.”