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**WW I began in
Europe in 1914 and
lasted until 1918.
The United States did
not enter the war until
Trench warfare
Armies had dug a network
of trenches (deep
protective ditches) along
the Western Front in which
soldiers lived worked and
Living conditions were
poor, many soldiers
suffered from diseases
such as trenchfoot
Trench Foot
“No Man’s Land”
The devastated area
between the opposing
armies’ trench lines where
everything had been
Soldiers would come out of
the trenches and race
toward the enemy while
fully exposed to enemy
1. Machine Guns-biggest impact!
2. Artillery
3. Poison gas
Germans introduced the
use of chemical gasses
as weapons
These gasses could burn
the skin, blind, or
destroy the lungs if
breathed in
Fortunately, gas masks
and rubber chemical
suits offered some
4. Tanks-least impact!
5. Airplanes
6. U-boats (submarines)
7. Hand Grenades
8. Land Mines
Russia Pulls Out of the War
Two revolutions in Russia in
1917 (the first one
democratic, the second one
communist) ousted Czar
Nicholas II
The new Russian government
negotiated a separate peace
with Germany and withdrew
Russia from the conflict, closing
the Eastern Front
American Victories
Summer 1918: US forces
successfully defended
Paris from a German
Fall 1918: US forces
began the Battle of
Argonne Forest, which
would eventually shatter
Germany’s fighting
The War Ends
Revolt broke out in Austria and
the Ottomans surrendered to the
Triple Entente, leaving Germany
alone to fight
After a mutiny broke out in the
German navy and the people of
Berlin erupted in riots over food
shortages in Nov. 1918, Kaiser
Wilhelm II stepped down as
Germany’s leader, clearing the
way for an armistice
WWI ended at 11 AM, Nov. 11, 1918-the 11th
day the 11th month, the 11th hour!
Wilson’s Fourteen Points
Pres. Wilson presented his plan for resolving the
war; his plan sought to restabilize Europe
and resolve the root problems that had
started WWI to begin with
Britain and France rejected Wilson’s plan in favor
of punishing Germany with harsh
reparations (fines)
Points 1 - 5
Ban secret alliances
Respect freedom of the
Remove all barriers to
trade (tariffs)
Everyone reduce the size
of their military
Stop colonization, respect
the rights of native
Points 6 - 13
Specified the creation of
new states in Europe (such as
Poland) and redrew the
boundaries of Europe
Also promoted selfdetermination for various
European ethnic states
Point 14: The League of Nations
Create a “League of
Nations” to help preserve
peace and prevent future
wars by offering a forum
for resolving international
The only one of Wilson’s
14 Points to be accepted
by Europe
The Treaty of Versailles (ver sy)
Signed in June 1919
Officially ended WWI
1. Germany had to accept the blame
for causing WWI
2. Germany had to pay reparations of $33 billion
($350 billion in today’s money)
3. Germany could only have a limited military
4. Germany had to give up territory to France &
5. Germany had to give up its
overseas colonies
Germans signed – but were furious over
the terms…. A cause of WW II?
Congress Rejects the Treaty
US Senate refused to ratify the Treaty of
Versailles because of strong opposition to joining
the League of Nations –
Many feared that joining the League would
mean giving up our right to decide our own
foreign policies, while others saw the League
as the type of “foreign entanglement” that
Washington had warned the US to stay out of
US never signed the Treaty or joined the League,
returned to a policy of isolationism
Casualties of war
1 in every 4 soldiers involved
died in the war
Even more were maimed: lost
limbs, lost vision, burned, etc.
Many suffered from mental
problems after the war: “shell
shock” or PTSD
Europe lie in ruins
History Repeats Itself…
Adolf Hitler