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PRESIDENT WILSON
FIGHTS FOR PEACE
Treaty of Versailles
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Allies have a desire to “get back at Germany” =
reparations
Flaws in the treaty sowed the seeds of postwar
international problems that eventually lead to WWII
Treaty humiliated Germany
War-Guilt Clause-forced Germany to admit sole
responsibility for starting WWI
No way Germany could pay the bill- $33 Billion
Dollars!!!!!
Russia was excluded from the peace conference
and lost more territory than Germany (Russia had
the most causalities in war and fought for 3 years)
Some believed treaty was too harsh
When
did Germany
make the last payment
for it’s WWI reparations?
October
th
10
….
…2010
The
German’s made the
final payment of 60
million dollars on
th
October 10 , 2010.
President Wilson’s 14 Points
President Woodrow Wilson of the USA
 14 Points = document giving 14 points to
ensure peace after WWI’s end
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Self-determination- what is this?
 League of Nations
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Wilson Presents His Plan
Fourteen Points-Plan for World Peace
 Fourteen Points speech given before
Congress, points divided into three
groups
 First 5 points Wilson believed had to be
addressed to prevent another war
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1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
14 POINTS
There should be no secret treaties among
nations.
Freedom of the seas should be maintained
for all.
Tariffs and other economic barriers among
nations should be lowered or abolished
(tariffs) in order to foster free trade.
Arms should be reduced “to the lowest point
consistent with domestic safety, thus
lessening the possibility of military
responses during diplomatic crises BUCKETS?
Colonial policies should consider the
interests of the colonial peoples as well as
the interests of the imperialistic powers
Continued…
 6-13
dealt with boundary changes
 14th point called for a creation of
and international organization to
address the diplomatic crises like
those that had sparked the war
 League of Nations- provide a forum
for nations to discuss and settle
their grievances without war
The League of Nations
Encourage
co-operation
Stop aggression
AIMS
Disarmament
Improve
social conditions
Powers of the League
 If
a country ignored the ruling of the
League it could:
 Put
pressure on
 Refuse to trade - sanctions
 Send in troops (but no fighting) member countries join together
Strengths of the League
 Many
countries supported it in early
days - they wanted peace
 Had some early successes
 Settled
some land disputes in 1920’s
 Helped refugees, deal with spread of
disease & fought for better conditions for
people
A few felt that the League of Nations
threatened US isolationism and the
constitutional right of Congress to declare
war
 Wilson set out in the US and spoke about
the League of Nations
 Became ill on October 2,
1919 and suffered a stroke
 US Senate rejected the
League of Nations and
signed a separate treaty
w/ Germany in 1921
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Membership
42 members - by 1930’s 59
 Defeated countries could not join (e.g.
Germany)
 Russia excluded because communist
 USA did not join - isolation from world
affairs
 A club for the victorious?
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Weaknesses of League
USA didn’t join
 No real power - relied on goodwill and
persuasion
 No permanent army
 Disarmament not realistic
 Structure a disaster - everyone had to
agree before any action taken!!!
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THE LEGACY OF THE WAR
Many Americans looked forward to return to
“normalcy”
 World War I had many changes in the U.S.
 Strengthened military
 Social change for African Americans and
Women
 Called WWI “the war to end all wars”
 Treaty of Versailles settled nothing
 Adolf Hitler emerged as an angry WWI vet
and rose to power in Germany
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First Female President?
Exit Slip
Analyze the consequences and
international reaction to the
Treaty of Versailles.
(What & why were these the
consequences and reaction)
Vocabulary
 Fourteen
Points
 League of Nations
 Georges Clemenceau
 David Lloyd George
 Treaty of Versailles
 Reparations
 War-Guilt Clause
 Henry Cabot Lodge
 Big Four
WILSON FIGHTS FOR PEACE
Chapter 11 Section 4
MAIN IDEA:
European leaders opposed most of
Wilson’s peace plan, and the U.S. Senate
failed to ratify the peace treaty.
OBJECTIVES:
1.
2.
3.
Summarize Wilson’s Fourteen Points
Describe the Treaty of Versailles and
international and domestic reaction to it.
Explain some of the consequences of the war.
The Allies Reject Wilson’s Plan
Georges Clemenceau-French premier
angry about German invasions
 David Lloyd George-British Prime
Minister, “Make Germany Pay”
 Peace Conference did not include Central
Powers or Russia
 Treaty of Versailles-created new nations,
shifted boundaries, and barred Germany
from maintaining an Army
 Germany made to pay reparations-pay
war damages amounting to 33 billion
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