WILSON FIGHTS FOR PEACE

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Transcript WILSON FIGHTS FOR PEACE

WILSON FIGHTS FOR
PEACE
Chapter 11 Section 4
MAIN IDEA:
European leaders opposed most of Wilson’s peace plan,
and the U.S. Senate failed to ratify the peace treaty.
OBJECTIVES:
1.
2.
3.
Summarize Wilson’s Fourteen Points
Describe the Treaty of Versailles and
international and domestic reaction to it.
Explain some of the consequences of the war.
Wilson Presents His Plan
• Fourteen Points-Plan for World
Peace
• Fourteen Points speech given before
Congress, big ideas “points” divided
into three groups
• First 5 points Wilson believed
had to be addressed to prevent
another war
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
14 POINTS
There should be no secret treaties among
nations.
Freedom of the seas should be maintained
for all.
Tariffs and other economic barriers should
be lowered or abolished to promote free
trade.
Arms should be reduced “to the lowest point
consistent with domestic safety” this lowers
the possibility of military responses during
diplomatic crises & reduces militarism
Colonial policies should consider the
interests of the people as well as the
interests of the imperialistic powers
14-points continued
• 6-13 dealt with boundary changes; he
believed in “self determination” – so that
groups with distinct national identities would
either form their own nation or choose which
nation they would belong to themselves.
• 14th point called for a creation of an
international organization to address the
diplomatic crises like those that had sparked
the war
• League of Nations- provide a forum for
nations to discuss and settle their grievances
without war
The Allies Reject Wilson’s Plan
• Georges Clemenceau-French premier angry about
•
•
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German invasions
David Lloyd George-British Prime Minister, “Make
Germany Pay”
Peace Conference did not include Central Powers (losing
side – against tradition) or Russia, who lost a lot of
territory.
Treaty of Versailles- created new nations, shifted
boundaries, barred Germany from maintaining an Army &
forced Germany to admit sole responsibility for the war
(“war guilt clause”)
Germany made to pay reparations- or war damages amounting to 33 billion
Treaty’s Weaknesses
• Flaws in the treaty were the roots of postwar
international problems that would eventually lead to
WWII
• Treaty humiliated Germany War-Guilt Clause
• There was no way Germany could pay the bill (war
reparations)
• Russia was excluded from the peace conference and
lost more territory than Germany (Russia had the most
causalities in war and fought for 3 years)
Debate of the Treaty
• Some believed treaty was too harsh
• A few felt that the League of Nations threatened US
isolationism policy and the constitutional right of
Congress to declare war
• Wilson travelled the US and spoke in defense of the
League of Nations; Became ill on October 2, 1919 and
suffered a stroke
• Wilson’s major political opponent to the League of
Nations was Henry Cabot Lodge. On behalf of other
conservative US Senators he called for the inclusion
of Congress’s Constitutional power to declare war
• US Senate rejected the League of Nations and signed
a separate treaty w/ Germany in 1921
THE LEGACY OF THE WAR
• Many Americans looked forward to return to “normalcy”
• World War I had many changes in the U.S.
• Strengthened military
• Social change for African Americans and
Women
• Called WWI “the war to end all wars”
• Treaty of Versailles settled nothing
• Adolf Hitler emerged as an angry WWI vet
and rose to power in Germany
Legacy of the War
• People wanted to return to normalcy but the war had
changed the world.
• CHANGE IN THE US: war turned us into a worldwide
political & military power; a lot of social change occurred
for African Americans and women; immigrants were
dealing with attitudes of fear and hatred.
• CHANGES IN EUROPE: physical destruction;
devastating economic and human costs; political
instability & violence that would continue on; Communism
emerged in Russia & Fascism in Italy, Spain and
Germany
• UNDECIDED GLOBAL ISSUES WOULD EVENTUALLY
LEAD TO WWII. These words from a German WWI
veteran sounded an ominous warning…
THE YEARS TO COME
• “IT CANNOT BE THAT TWO MILLION GERMANS
SHOULD HAVE FALLEN IN VAIN… NO, WE DO NOT
PARDON; WE DEMAND – VENGEANCE.”
• Within 2 decades the world would again be plunged into a massive
war…WWII.
• Can you guess who spoke those
words above?
Answer
•ADOLPH
HITLER