Cell lesson

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Transcript Cell lesson

Cells
Georgia High School Graduation
Test: Science Review
1
Introduction
• From the key vocabulary, circle
the words that you can already
define or use in a sentence.
• Write down two or three things
that you think are important for
you to know today.
2
What is biology?
• The study of living things
• What is considered living?
–anything that has the ability to
nourish, grow, and reproduce
–cells must be present
3
Cell Theory
• The cell is considered the
basic unit of life.
• All living things contain at
least one cell.
• Cells come from pre-existing
cells.
4
Sample Question
1. What structures can be
identified in a typical
animal or plant cell?
5
Plant Cells versus Animal
Cells
PLANT CELL
ANIMAL CELL
6
Plant Cells versus Animal
Cells
PLANT CELLS
• cell wall (provides
structure)
• chloroplast
(location of
photosynthesis/
energy production)
ANIMAL CELLS
• centrioles
(responsible for
cell reproduction)
7
Organelles Common to Both
STRUCTURE
FUNCTION
nucleus
control of all cell activities; location of DNA
mitochondria
energy production
Golgi complex
(apparatus)
assembles, sorts, and transports cell products
ribosome
protein synthesis
chromosome
8
composed of DNA containing genetic material
Cell Organelles, continued
STRUCTURE
FUNCTION
cell membrane
phospholipid bilayer; maintains homeostasis;
protects the cell
lysosome
digests old cells and food (cleans up the cell)
endoplasmic
reticulum
produces, stores, and transports protein (rough)
and lipids (smooth)
flagella/cilia
movement of materials
9
Sample Question
2. Compare prokaryotic and
eukaryotic cells.
10
Prokaryotes
“Pro-No”
• No true nucleus
• No membrane-bound
organelles
• No well-organized
membrane
11
Prokaryotes
“Pro-No”
• All prokaryotes are bacteria
and all bacteria are
prokaryotes
• Prokaryotes = bacteria
(Monera)
12
Eukaryotes
“Eu-True”
• True nucleus
• Well organized membrane
• Membrane – bound organelles
• Most plants and animals and
other specialized organisms
13
Active versus Passive
Transport
ACTIVE TRANSPORT
• requires energy (low
concentration to high)
• endocytosis and
exocytosis
• active transport
(ATP is used)
PASSIVE TRANSPORT
• diffusion (particles
from high
concentration to low)
• osmosis (water from
high concentration to
low)
• facilitated transport
(diffusion using a
membrane protein) 14
Organic Compounds
ORGANIC
COMPOUND
carbohydrates
lipids
DEFINITION
sugars and
starches
fats (insoluble
in water)
proteins
amino acids
nucleic acids
DNA and RNA
FUNCTION
provide energy
store energy
responsible for
most cell
functions
store hereditary
information 15
Homeostasis
• The maintenance of a constant,
stable environment internally
• example: body temperature
Cell Membrane and Homeostasis
• utilizes active and passive transport
• diffusion and osmosis depends on
environment (hydrophobic or
hydrophilic)
16
Hydrophobic versus
Hydrophilic
Hydrophobic
Hydrophilic
• “water-fearing” • “water-loving”
• outside of cell • inside of cell
17
Discussion
• If the cell were a community,
what components would a cell
have to have to function as a
community? (boundaries—
political, transportation, energy
source)
18