Life Cycle: From Childhood through Adulthood

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Transcript Life Cycle: From Childhood through Adulthood

Unit 9: Lifecycle- Part 2
How much to feed newborn?
•Breastfeed: 8-12 x/day
•Wet at least 6 diapers
•Have at least 3 loose stools per day
•Regain birth weight within the first 2 weeks
• Readiness for Solid Foods
• Increased digestive enzymes
– so solid foods can be digested with ease
• Loss of extrusion reflex
– infant’s tongue pushes the spoon and food back
– need to be able to transfer food from front of
mouth to the back
• Able to sit without support
• Purposefully bring hand to mouth
• Age of about 4-6 months
Feeding schedule
• Baby rice cereal
• iron-fortified; hypoallergenic
• mix with breast milk or formula
• Add one food at a time
• see how tolerates foods and watch for allergic
• Strained vegetables, fruits, meats
• 6-7 months: infant spoon and cup with spout lid
• 8 months: pick up small pieces of food
• 9-12 months: soft foods; table foods
• NO cow’s milk, egg whites, ?wheat?
Infants: Foods to Avoid
• Avoid Honey and Corn Syrup
– contain spores of Clostridium botulinum, in
infants can cause botulism, a deadly food
borne illness
• Avoid high risk choking foods
– hotdogs, nuts, raw carrots, raisins, apple
chunks, popcorn, hard candy, gum, hard
pretzels, grapes, plain peanut butter,
• Don’t leave baby along during feeding
• Feeding problems during infancy
– Colic
– Baby bottle tooth decay
– Iron-deficiency anemia
– Gastroesophageal reflux
– Diarrhea
– Failure to thrive
– Fruit Juices and Drinks
• 3-6 ounces per day; avoid putting in a bottle
Childhood: age 1 to beginning of
• Energy and nutrient needs during childhood
– Energy and protein
• Kcal and grams protein per kg decrease
from infancy
– 1-3 year old: 1,300 kcals/day
– 4-6 year old: 1,800 kcals/day
– 7-10 year old: 2,000 kcals/day
– Vitamins and minerals
• Variety of foods needed
• Need for supplements?
Common Food Habits of Toddlers
• Playing with food
– discover texture, smell, taste
• Food jags
– continue to offer new foods
• Food protests
– caregiver model positive, corrective behavior
• Irregular eating patterns
– growth has slowed; may skip meals but
continue to offer regular meals and snacks
Influences on Childhood Food Habits and
• Advertisements
– sweetened cereal; fast food; candy
• Social events and parties
– pizza; soft drinks;
• Popular snacks and beverages
– “fruit snacks”; cookies; ice cream; soda
• 2 parents working
• Unscheduled meals and snacks
Nutritional Concerns of Childhood
– Malnutrition and hunger
• School Lunch, Breakfast, and Summer Food Service
– Food and behavior
• No scientific link between diet and hyperactivity
– Nutrition and chronic disease
• Gradually phase in lower-fat, higher-fiber diet
– Childhood obesity
• Increasing incidence
• Focus on growth
– Lead toxicity
– Vegetarianism
• Physical growth and development
– Adolescent growth spurt
• Boys: begins between 12-13 years
– Gain about 8 inches in height, 45 pounds in
• Girls: begins between 10-11 years
– Gain about 6 inches in height, 35 pounds in
• Change in body composition
• Changes in emotional maturity
Nutrient Needs of Adolescents
– Energy and protein
• Highest total calories and protein grams per day
– Vitamins and minerals of concern
• Vitamin A
• Iron
• Calcium
• Influences on food intake
– Social factors
– Income
– Individuality
Nutrition-Related Concerns of Adolescents
– Fitness and sports
– Acne
– Eating disorders
– Obesity
– Tobacco, alcohol, recreational drugs
Staying Young While Growing Older
• Age-related changes
– Weight and body composition
• Add fat, lose lean body mass
– Mobility
• Reduced muscle and skeletal strength
– Immunity
• Decline in defense mechanism
– Taste and smell
• Decline in ability
– Gastrointestinal changes
• Reduced acid secretion, reduced motility
Especially Physical Activity
Weigh less
Greater flexibility
More endurance
Better balance
Better health
Strengthen muscles---less falls
Nutrient Needs of the Mature Adult
• Energy
– Reduced needs
• Decreased activity, decreased lean body mass
• Protein
– Same needs per kg body weight as younger adults
• Carbohydrate
– More likely to be lactose intolerant
• Fat
– Maintain moderate-low fat diet
• Water
– Reduced thirst response
Nutrient Needs of the Mature Adult
• Vitamins of concern
– Vitamin D
• Needed for bone health, calcium balance
• Reduced skin synthesis, activation
• Higher needs
– B vitamins
• Reduced ability to absorb vitamin B12
• Folate, B6, B12 may help reduce heart disease risk
Nutrient Needs of the Mature Adult
• Minerals of concern
– Calcium
• Bone health
• Reduced ability to absorb calcium
– Zinc
• Marginal deficiencies likely
• May compromise immunity, wound healing
– Magnesium
– Iron
• Elders may have limited intake
• Need for supplements
Nutrition-Related Concerns of
Mature Adults
• Drug-drug and drug-nutrient interactions
– Can affect use of drugs or nutrients
• Depression
– May reduce food intake
– Alcoholism can interfere with nutrient use
• Anorexia of aging
– Loss of appetite with illness
– Can lead to protein-energy malnutrition
• Arthritis
– May interfere with food preparation and eating
– Dietary changes may improve symptoms
• Bowel and bladder regulation
– Increased risk of urinary tract infection
– Chronic constipation more common with age
• Need for increased fluids, fiber
• Dental health
– May interfere with eating ability, food choices
• Vision problems
– Can affect ability to shop, cook
– Antioxidants may reduce macular degeneration
• Osteoporosis
– Common in elders, especially women
– Maintain calcium, vitamin D, exercise
• Alzheimer’s disease
– Affects ability to function
– Reduced taste, smell
– Risk for weight loss, malnutrition
Meal Management for Mature Adults
• Managing independently
– Services for elders
• Meals on Wheels
• Elderly Nutrition Program
• Food Stamp Program
• Wise eating for one or two
• Finding community resources