Seminar 2015

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Transcript Seminar 2015

SEMINAR NOTES
AQA FOOD EXAM
2015
Research context :
Pastries for a local bakery
The recommended
guidelines say you
should not exceed 6g
of salt per day
3 a day Dairy portions.
5 a day bread, cereals
and potatoes portions.
5 a day fruit and veg.
A portion of fruit or veg
is about the size of
your clenched fist.
Meat, fish and
alternatives.
2 or 3 portions a day
2 Portions of fish a week
Sugary and fatty foods
small amounts only.
Eatwell Plate
Alternative proteins.
For people who don’t
eat meat or animal
products.
TVP
Textured vegetable
protein (made from
soya bean)
Quorn
A mycoroprotein which
is related to the
mushroom.
Tofu and bean curd
Made from soya
beans.
A Balanced Diet
contains all these
groups in the
proportions of the
plate
Specific dietary groups
You will need to have revised specific dietary groups such as:
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Diabetics
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Coeliacs (require gluten free diet)
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Low fat / Low salt – to reduce the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) /
stroke / high blood pressure / obesity
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Vegetarian - eat only dairy animal products (milk, eggs, cream etc.)
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Vegan – no animal products whatsoever
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Nut Allergy
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Lactose Intolerant (unable to have cow’s milk / milk products)
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Calorie controlled
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Specific Religions e.g. Hindus eat no beef, Muslims eat no pork, Jews eat no
pork or shellfish
Vegan
People who eat no animal
products including meat,
dairy (from animals milk)
eggs and fish. Many
vegans avoid wearing
animal products also.
Jews
Jews can not eat pork and
their foods must be Kosher
Indian Food
The staple food of India is
rice and many dishes are
based on this. Spices are
also important
Peanut allergy
This often effects small
children under 3 years
due to the effects the
allergy can cause.
Why Foods are
chosen
Moral and Ethical –
Choose foods
because of their
beliefs about how
the food is produced
Religious – Choose
foods because of
what their religion
tells them
Cultural – Different
cultures have
different staple
foods and
preferences
Health – People
choose foods for a
health reason
Vegetarian /
vegetarianism.
People who chose for a
moral, religious or health
reason to exclude meat
from their diets.
(this can include fish,
shellfish, animal meats and
Gluten
poultry) .
People who have an allergy
towards gluten should avoid
wheat, maize, rice ,rye and
barley.
Lactose Intolerance
Is an allergy towards
milk it can cause
suffers to suffer from
unpleasant reactions
Designing
for a
Healthy
Option
How do manufacturers make
products suitable for
consumers who want to
follow a healthy option
diet?
 Reduce salt
 Reduce calories
 Reduce the saturated fat by
using low fat alternatives eg
low fat spread, low fat
cheese, semi skimmed milk
 Reduce the size of the
portion
 Increase vegetables and/or
fruit
 Increase fibre eg wholemeal
flour
Healthy options:
Flour: Functions: Bulk,
S/R contains
Chemical raising Agent, Contains
Gluten
Use: Gluten-free for Coeliacs,
Wholemeal/oats/ground nuts – Adds
NSP (fibre)
Fats: Function:
Taste, mouth-feel,
extends shelf-life, moisten, shorten
Use: Low Fat, vegetable oil, Functional
fats:Omega 3 margarine, Probiotic – all
reduce saturated fats
Eggs: Functions:
binding, thickening,
aeration, raising agents, taste
Use: Organic eggs, Omega 3, locally
produced
Sugar:
Function: Sweeten, texture,
bulk, preservation, lighten
Use: Reduce amount of Sugar, Sugar
substitute, natural fruit sugars, honey.
Adapting Recipes
Functions of Ingredients
Liquid: Milk/juice:
Use: Soya milk (for Lactose
Intolerant)
OrganicMilk,- to Lower Carbon
Footprint
Semi skimmed or skimmed – to
reduce saturated fat content
Dried Fruit: Functions :
Sweetness, Texture, add vitamins
Vegetables: Functions:
Texture, Colour, Minerals
Advantages
Disadvantages
Manufacturers may
use standard
components:
There are some
disadvantages to
using standard
components:
To save time
Can be more expensive
Because they do not
have the necessary
specific machinery or
skilled workers
The manufacturer is
relying on another
company that could let
them down
So that the quality is
guaranteed
Time must be allowed
for ordering and supply
Because complex
production lines take up
a lot of space and are
expensive to set up.
Components are
usually bought in bulk
and have to be stored
in the right conditions
So that a wider range of
products can be
produced
The Danger Zone!
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Important temperature
zones:
0 – 4oC – fridge temp.
5oC – 63oC – Danger
Zone Bacteria multiply
72oC – Temp at which
food must reach for at
least 2 minutes to kill
bacteria.
-18oC Freezer temp (+ or
– 3oC)
Electrical Kitchen Equipment
Health and safety rules to be followed by food workers
using electrical equipment.
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•Keep away from water
•Follow manufacturers instructions
•Check condition of flexes and plug
•Do not use with wet hands
•Personal safety precautions/ Wear clean, protective
Electric Whisk
clothing
Do not leave flexes across water supplies
•Hold securely / securely based during use.
•Keep fingers / clothing/ hair away from any moving parts
•Have training in correct use of equipment
•Equipment should be clean before/after use
•Concentration during use/ do not leave unsupervised.
Tabletop Food Mixer
Hazards in food preparation
What are Hazards?
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Hazards are anything that can cause harm to the consumer. They can occur at any
stage in the food production chain from the field to factory to shop to table.
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Biological:
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e.g. salmonella in raw chicken , seafood or eggs, Campylobacter (gastroenteritis)
found in seafood, meat, poultry & milk; e.g. cleaning chemicals, agricultural chemical,
paint, oil
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Physical: e.g.
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Glass from bottles, jars, light fixtures
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Metal from machinery, equipment Wood from pallets, boxes
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Insects from plants, open windows Personal items e.g. jewellery,
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Chemical: eg from cleaning fluids and bleaches
What is ‘Food contamination’? Food contamination means:
• That food has foreign particles eg micro-organisms/bacteria in it
• Food may cause food poisoning / be unsafe to eat
• Food becomes harmful because of physical/chemical/biological
contaminants
How food contamination can be prevented . Include checks on:
Staff (clean uniform / healthy / no visible cuts / boils etc.), sanitising & cleaning
equipment / surfaces; checking equipment is safe and in good condition, use of
colour coded chopping boards, checking storage temperatures, rotation of
stock (FIFO), using reputable suppliers & quality ingredients etc.
Quality control checks using
computers
Types of control checks:
• Timing
• Temperatures of oven
• Metal detection
• Weigh of ingredients
• Quality Control, e.g.
shape, size
• Portion control
• Microbiological checks
• Other relevant checks
Advantages:
CAD /CAM.
• Less human error / more reliable / quicker
• Cheaper than employing extra staff to
Disadvantages:
research / in long term
• Greater accuracy and up to date information  May be expensive to set up
initially / decreasing profits
• Wider range of information available
 Need to train staff in it use or
• More consistent
inaccuracies will result
• Can be carried out when human not present,
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If information is inaccurate it
24/7
can affect success of future
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• Clearly presented results e.g. graphs, charts
which can be sent to other people
• Can make changes easily to update current
data
• Results can be analysed quickly, e.g. on Excel
• Easier to import other programs and
software.
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products based on research
Difficulties/costly if system
breaks down, need back up
Need to decide on validity of
entries on websites or other
information used otherwise
results are worthless
Lack of human interaction may
lead to incorrect results
Lack of compatibility between
software programs
Sensory Testing
Why do we do sensory testing?
Food manufacturers use sensory testing when they are creating or improving food products.
Useful comparisons can be made between samples
Testing is always carried out in controlled conditions. This refers to having all conditions the
same, so it is unbiased /has no way of influencing tester / neutral conditions.
What makes a FAIR TEST?
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Same size samples
Identical dishes
Identical quantities of food
Coded samples
Same light conditions
Noise free area
Smell free area
Individual booths for privacy
Blind testing
Clear instructions given to taste
Water/cracker to refresh mouth after each tasting
Similar charts used to record outcomes
The purpose of packaging
Protection - Packaging protects foods from:
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Physical damage during transportation and storage
The effects of temperature changes, insect or rodent attacks, mould growth
etc. Packaging guarantees food safety and hygiene.
Containing – Packaging contains the contents: so that they can be transported,
stored and displayed easily.
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Packaging can make awkwardly shaped products easy to handle.
Preserving –
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Packaging can be part of the preservation process such as tin cans and modified
atmosphere packaging (MAP) (see below).
Information –
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Packaging describes and identifies the contents.
Good packaging design gives a brand image and links other products in the range.
Orange, yellow and blue are popular packaging colours.
Preventing Tampering –
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Packaging helps stop the tampering of goods. It’s almost impossible to make
packaging tamperproof, but it can be designed so that it’s obvious if the package
has been opened.
Food Labelling
Compulsory:
By law, all food manufacturers
(people who make food
products) must have the
following on their food labels:
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Name of product
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Description of product
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Manufacturer’s name &
address
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List of ingredients (heaviest
first)
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‘Best before’ / ‘Use by’ date
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Weight or volume
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Storage instructions
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Cooking or preparation
instructions (e.g. heating up
ready meals)
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Allergy advice
Optional Food Labelling:
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Food Manufacturers will often add
one or more from the list below,
although these are not required by
law:
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Illustration (picture / photo)
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Bar code or smart code – they
identify the price and are used by
shops and manufacturers for stock
control.
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Special claim (e.g. ‘low fat’)
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Symbol for average quantity (e)
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Nutritional information of the
product. If the special claim is about
a nutrient, this information MUST
be included.
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Customer guarantee
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Price – although lots don’t as they
have smart codes.
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Recycling logos and anti-litter
symbols to encourage consumers to
recycle.
Food
Additives
Types of food additives:
• Preservatives
• Colourings e.g. tartrazine
• E numbers
• Flavourings
• Emulsifiers e.g. Lecithin (found in
egg yolk)
• Natural
• Raising agents / baking powder
• Synthetic
• Stabilisers
• Anti oxidants
• Anti caking agents
• humectants
• Nutrient and flavour enhancers
Advantages•
• Enable food to be preserved
• Improved colour / flavour
• Improve sensory attributes of food
• Longer shelf life
• Prevent separation of e.g. dressings
• Allow colour of product to be constant,
e.g. jam
• Prevents oxidation of fats in baked
products
Disadvantages
• Risk of Health problems eg Eczema
• Safety of some additives a concern
• Make some foods look unnatural and
artificial
• Additives need approval from the EU,
e.g. some are removed /
withdrawn
• Risk of hyper activity in children
May give examples e.g. colourings in
squash
Sustainability & Environmental Issues
Packaging Issues:
• Excess use leads to poor environmental
control / deforestation /world’s natural
resources
• Manufacturers need to use recyclable
packaging /biodegradable
• Not all foods may need packaging
• Land fill causes more problems
• Storage problems for foods and left
over packaging
• Customers need to understand
information provided on packages e.g.
Nutritional labelling
• Some Chemicals used in food packaging
can be harmful to wildlife
• New technologies – vacuum packaging
nanotechnology/ coatings, MAP, aseptic.
Organic – produced without the use
of chemicals, pesticides, herbicides
Seasonality:
Eliminates the environmental damage caused
by shipping foods thousands of miles
Health benefits of eating fresh, unprocessed
fruits and vegetables.
Foods that are in season are better in terms
of nutritive value and are cheaper.
Food Miles:
Is the distance food travels from where its
produced to where it’s sold
Fair Trade:
Fair trade foods ensure that the workers or
farmers who produce the foods get a fair
price for their produce and have a
reasonable standard of living. Fair trade is
about guaranteed fair prices for the
farmers, farmer workers and their families,
better working conditions and local
sustainability. Fair trade foods include
coffee, tea, chocolate, icing sugar, caster
sugar and bananas.
Genetically Modified Foods
Other Key
Foods that have been altered genetically to contain
words
one trait or other. Normally to be resilience against
bacteria or pests. GM foods first went on sale in
1990’s. If a field has been used for GM crops it must
be left for 7 years before it can be used for organic
food crops.
Smart products
Smart foods are foods that have been developed using new and improved processes, and
often human intervention. Examples of smart foods are instant desserts. Genetically
modified foods are examples of smart foods.
Smart foods can be:
• foods with new molecular structures, such as modified starches and sweeteners
• functional foods e.g. probiotic yoghurts, cholesterol-lowering spreads and fortified eggs
• meat analogues e.g. tofu, textured vegetable protein, mycoprotein (quorn)
• modern biotechnology e.g. soya bean, tomato plant, particular enzymes
Smart foods could:
• have a special function other than providing the consumer with nutrients and energy.
• perform a function that cannot be done by normal foods.
• have been invented with other uses in mind before being made available to the general
public.
• Smart foods can also be produced using nanotechnology. Eg low fat marg which reduces
cholesterol, spreadable butter, packaging which is light but very strong
Remember to use the criteria to
annotate the designs in section A
A manufacturer is
developing new ideas
for decorated cakes.
 Be a sweet or a
savoury product
 Have sensory
appeal
 Have an
attractive finish
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be suitable for
batch production.
A pasty which
is a savoury
product
Tender steak and
chopped vegetables
give taste (sensory
appeal)
Glazing with egg
gives an attractive
finish
Pasty is suitable for batch
production
Things to include in the Flow Diagram
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Logical sequence of activities
Specialist Terminology/ Named Processes eg whisking
method
Timings
Temperatures
Personal hygiene eg washing hands, tie up hair, clean
apron
Kitchen Hygiene – sanitising work surfaces, chopping
boards
Food hygiene – storage, check dates
Safety points eg use oven gloves, knives
Control Checks (QC checks, size, shape, templates etc
Clear Instructions
Finishing Techniques eg glazing, sealing
Things I am sure will
come up
A table of information to explain
• Standard components – advantages
and disadvantages
• Packaging information and symbols
on them
• Functions of ingredients of pastries
and how to make it
• Equipment and how to use it correctly
• Sensory testing and how to do it
•How computers control processes
Make sure you read the question
carefully!!!!!!
Look at Highlighted
words
This question is about control checks used during production.
Describe two different control checks used when making chicken
salad wraps, at each of the preparation stages listed below.
Preparation stage
Control checks used
Choosing raw ingredients 1
…………………………………………...............
……………………………………………..........
2
…………………………………………...............
……………………………………………..............
TIP: Read the whole paper – then go back and start it!
So when you get stuck for an answer
Remember your revision
And you will get that
Good Luck Everyone
THE END