Tour of Cell Organelles

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Transcript Tour of Cell Organelles

Cells & Cell Organelles
Doing Life’s Work
AP Biology
2009-2010
Vocabulary
I can…..
1/27 – organelle 1/27 – Describe 2 functions of
my cells.
1/28 – cell wall
1/29 – lysosomes 1/28 – Name 3 different animal
1/30 – rough ER cells.
1/29 – Name 3 ways cells
2/2 – golgi appartus
move.
1/30 – Trace the path of
protein synthesis.
2/2 – Contrast plant and
animal cells
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Types of cells
bacteria
cells
Prokaryote
- no organelles
Eukaryotes
- organelles
animal cells
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plant cells
Why study cells? Levels of life!!!
 Cells  Tissues  Organs  Bodies
bodies are made up of cells
 cells do all the work of life!

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How do animal or unicellular cells
move?
 Some can crawl with pseudopods
 Some can swim with a flagellum
 Some can swim very fast with cilia- in
humans cilia line most of our
airways!!!!
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Flagellum/flagella
 large whiplike


tail
pushes or pulls
cell through
water
can be single,
or a pair
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Cilia
 fine, hairlike


extensions
attached to cell
membrane
beat in unison
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Pseudopods
 means “fake


feet”
extensions of
cell membrane
example:
ameoba
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Eukaryote cells can be
multicellular
 The whole cell can be specialized for


one job
cells can work together as tissues
Tissues can work together as organs
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Examples of specialized euk.
cells
 liver cell:
specialized to
detoxify blood
and store
glucose as
glycogen.
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 sperm cell:
specialized
to deliver
DNA to egg
cell
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Do plants have tissue and organs?
 Show potato an onion fields!!!
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 Mesophyll
cell


specializ
ed to
capture
as much
light as
possible
inside a
leaf
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All cells are shaped
according to their
functions!!!!!
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The Jobs of Cells
 Cells have 3 main jobs

make energy
 need energy for all activities
ATP
 need to clean up waste produced
while making energy

Our organelles
do all these
jobs!
make proteins
 proteins do all the work in a cell,
so we need lots of them

make more cells
 for growth
 to replace damaged or diseased cells
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Organelles - small organelles
 Organelles - perform cellular functions

each structure has a job to do
They’re like
mini-organs!
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Model Animal Cell
CONTROL CENTER
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Nucleus - discovered Robert
Brown 1831
 Function – surrounded by membrane

protects DNA
Structures


nuclear membrane
nucleolus
 ribosome factory

chromosomes
 DNA
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Chromosomes or chromatin
 DNA and proteins located within the
nucleus.
 Chromatin when cell is growing
 Chromosomes condensed chromatin
when dividing
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Nuclear Membrane
 Control the


movement of
material in and out
of nucleus.
Surrounds
chromosomes
Double phosolipid
layer DNA
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Nucleolus
 Site of ribosomes synthesis- where
protein synthesis starts.
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CLEAN, STORES, AND
SUPPORT
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Vacoules
Plants• Central, large storage area to help plant
remain rigid. Wilt without it!!!!!
• Storage of chemicals and wastes.
• Flowers - contain pigments attract
insects.
• Poisons to protect plant
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 Vacuole
Function: huge
water-filled sac
keeps cell
pressurized
and
stores starch.
Plant would wilt
without it
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Vacoules – animals and protists
 Paramecium - lives fresh water and
constantly pumps out water.
Contractile vacuole – to pump out fresh
water.
 Varies from cell to cell - stores waste,
poison, and water.
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Vesicles
 Function
moving material
around cell
 storage

small food
particle
 Structure

membrane sac
vacuole filled w/
digestive enzymes
vesicle
vesicle filled w/
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digested nutrients
Cytoskeleton
 Acts as skeleton



and muscle
Provides shape and
structure
Helps move
organelles around
the cell
Made of three types
of filaments
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Microtubules
 Straight hollow


tubes
Support and give
shape to the cell.
Grow from
centriole in animal
cells during
mitosis
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Microtubules
Function: cell division and gives cell
shape. Bigger than microfilaments.
Shaped like tubes!!
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Intermediate fibers
 Reinforce the

shape of the cell
Anchor organelles
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Microfilaments
 Cell movements
 Support cell shape
inside cell
membrane
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Microfilaments
Function: threadlike structures that gives
a cell its shape
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Centrioles
 Function

help coordinate cell division
 only in animal cells
 Structure

one pair in each cell
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 Function
Lysosomes



digest food Lipids, carbs, and
proteins
clean up & recycle
 digest broken
organelles
lysosomes
small food
particle
vacuole
digesting food
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 Structure

membrane sac of
digestive enzymes
digesting broken
organelles
Cytoplasm
 Everything inside the cell between the
cell membrane and the nucleus;
consists of semi - fluid and organelles.
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PROTEINS
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Proteins
 Making proteins

to run daily life & growth, the cell must…
 build proteins
 structural proteins (muscle fibers, hair, skin, claws)
 enzymes (speed up chemical reactions)
 signals (hormones) & receptors

organelles that do this work…
 nucleus
 ribosomes
 endoplasmic reticulum (ER)
 Golgi apparatus
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Ribosomes
 Function


protein factories
read instructions to build proteins from DNA
 Structure


some free in cytoplasm
some attached to ER
Ribosomes on ER
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Endoplasmic Reticulum
 Function

works on proteins
 helps complete the
proteins after ribosome builds
them

makes membranes
 Structure

rough ER
 ribosomes attached
 works on proteins
smooth ER - synthesis
lipids and steroids makes
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membranes, store Ca+

Golgi Apparatus
 Function

finishes, sorts, labels & ships proteins
 like UPS headquarters
 shipping & receiving department

ships proteins in vesicles
 “UPS trucks”
 Structure

vesicles
carrying proteins
membrane sacs
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transport vesicles
endoplasmic
reticulum
nucleus
protein
on its way!
DNA
RNA
vesicle
TO:
TO:
TO:
vesicle
ribosomes
TO:
finished
protein
protein
Golgi
apparatus
Making Proteins
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CAPTURE AND
RELEASE ENERGY
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Mitochondria
 Function make energy
make ATP energy from cellular respiration
Structure
 double membrane

ATP
in both animal &
plant cells
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Plants make energy two ways!
 Mitochondria

ATP
make energy from sugar + O2
 cellular respiration
 Chloroplasts

make energy + sugar from sunlight
 photosynthesis
 sunlight + CO2  ATP & sugar
 ATP = active energy
 sugar = stored energy

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build leaves & roots & fruit
out of the sugars
sugar
ATP
 Chloroplasts
Function: filled
with
chlorophyll
turns solar
energy into
glucose.
Plants and
Protists
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Mitochondria are in both cells!!
animal cells
plant cells
mitochondria
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chloroplast
CELL BOUNDARY
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Cell membrane
phosphate
“head”
 Function
separates cell from outside
 controls what enters or leaves cell

 O2, CO2, food, H2O, nutrients, waste

recognizes signals from other cells
 allows communication between cells
 Structure

double layer of fat
 phospholipid bilayer
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lipid “tail”
Structures found in plant cells
 Cell wall




very strong
made of cellulose
Function:
protects cell from
rupturing
glued to other
cells next door
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cytoplasm
jelly-like material
around organelles
central vacuole
storage: food,
water or waste
cell wall
support
mitochondria
make ATP in
cellular respiration
cell membrane
cell boundary
controls movement
of materials in & out
recognizes
signals
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chloroplast
make ATP & sugars in
photosynthesis
lysosome
digestion & clean up
cytoplasm
jelly-like material holding
organelles in place
vacuole & vesicles
transport inside cells
storage
lysosome
food digestion
garbage disposal &
recycling
ribosomes
builds proteins
mitochondria
make ATP energy
from sugar + O2
cell membrane
cell boundary
controls movement
of materials in & out
recognizes
signals
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nucleus
protects DNA
controls cell
ER
helps finish proteins
makes membranes
Golgi apparatus
finishes, packages
& ships proteins
nucleus
control cell
protects DNA
nucleolus
make ribosomes
endoplasmic reticulum
processes proteins
makes membranes
ribosomes
make proteins
cytoplasm
jelly-like material
around organelles
central vacuole
storage: food,
water or waste
Golgi apparatus
finish & ship
proteins
cell wall
support
mitochondria
make ATP in
cellular respiration
cell membrane
cell boundary
controls movement
of materials in & out
recognizes
signals
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chloroplast
make ATP & sugars in
photosynthesis
lysosome
digestion & clean up
That’s my
cellular story…
Any Questions?
AP Biology
2009-2010
Food & water storage
food vacuole
plant cells
central vacuole
animal cells
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contractile
vacuole
How are plant and animal cells different?
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Plants vs. Animal Cells
Plant Cell
Cell wall
Vacuole
Chloroplast
Shape
No centrioles
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Animal Cell
No cell wall
no vacuole
no chloroplast
Different shape
centrioles
Structure
Animal cells
Plant cells
cell membrane
Yes
yes
nucleus
Yes
yes
nucleolus
yes
yes
ribosomes
yes
yes
ER
yes
yes
Golgi
yes
yes
centrioles
yes
no
cell wall
no
yes
mitochondria
yes
yes
cholorplasts
no
yes
One big vacuole
no
yes
cytoskeleton
yes
Yes
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