What is the term that describes the cell membrane

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Transcript What is the term that describes the cell membrane

Unit 4 Cells
1. What is the term that only some
things come in and out and what
cell part has this function?
• Selectively or Semi
permeable
2. What are the 2 layers made of?
• Phospholipids
3. Does the inside and outside of
the cell love or dislike water?
Why?
• Loves water/hydrophilic because their
polar heads are facing inside and outside
of the cell
4. How does the inside of the cell
membrane feel about water?
Why?
• Does not like water/hydrophobic because
the non-polar tails facing the inside the cell
membrane
5. What are embedded into the cell
membrane?
• Protein molecules
6. What is the membrane sometimes
referred as because of the free
floating protein molecules?
• Fluid Mosaic Model
7. Define cytoplasm.
• Space within the cell
8. What is the function of the
nucleus?
• To control all the functions of the cell
9. What are the 3 main parts of the
nucleus and what are their
functions?
– Nuclear membrane-controls what goes in and
out of the cell
– Nucleolus-makes ribosomes
– DNA/chromatin-hereditary/genetic information
10. What is the function of the
Rough ER?
• Make and transport proteins
11. What is the function of the
smooth ER?
• Make and transport lipids
12. The ribosomes make the
proteins, but who tells them how?
• The nucleus gives the directions for
making the proteins
13. Where are ribosomes located?
• On the rough ER or freely floating in
cytoplasm
14. Golgi apparatus is flattened
sacs, what are their 3 jobs?
• Modify proteins
• Package proteins
• Secrete proteins out in vesicles to where
they are needed
15. Lysosomes break down wastes
using what type of protein?
• enzymes
16. What things do vacuoles store?
• Water, food and some wastes
17. Vacuoles are in both plant and
animal cells for storage, what is the
main difference between those two
types of cell’s vacuoles?
• Plants have one large one that provides
turgor, while animals are small
18. How does
Mitochondria/Mitochondrion (plural)
make energy?
• Breaking bonds
19. What is another term commonly
used to refer to cell energy?
• ATP
20. What substance does
mitochondrion use to make
energy?
• Glucose AKA sugar
21. What is the mitochondria’s
nickname?
• Powerhouse
22. Write the 4 step process for
making proteins:
• Production of ribosomes in the nucleolus
of the nucleus
• Ribosomes delivered to the rough ER
where they make the proteins
• Proteins delivered to Golgi apparatus or
Golgi bodies
• Golgi bodies modify, package and deliver
the proteins to where they are needed
23. What is the organelle that is
only in animal cells and what is its
function?
• Centrioles to make spindle fibers for
mitosis
24. What are the two main form of
cell movement and briefly describe.
• Cilia-short hair-like projections
• Flagella-long whip-like tail
25. What do plant cells look like?
• Brick walls
26. What are the 2 structures only
in a plant cell?
• Cell wall
• Chloroplasts
27. What is the rigid outside
structure of support and protection
in a plant cell?
• Cell wall
28. What captures light in the
chloroplast?
• Chlorophyll
29. What does it convert light to?
• Chemical energy
• Chloroplasts make sugar from carbon
dioxide
_______.
31. Why are cells performing
cellular transport? (What are they
trying to achieve?)
• Homeostasis
32. What are the 2 main types of
cellular transport, their main
differences and which direction do
their particles flow ?
• Active transport requires energy because
particles flow low concentration to high
concentration
#32. cont.
• Passive transport does NOT require
energy because particles flow from high
concentration to low concentration
33. Define active transport.
• Pumping substances across the
membrane using energy
• 34. Active transport moves from
low
high
_____concentration
to _____
using
energy
_______.
35. What are the 2 types of Active
transport are there and do the
substances end up inside or
outside the cell?
• Endocytosissubstance ends up
inside the cell
• Exocytosissubstances exit the
cell
36. What are the 3 steps of
Endocytosis?
• Membrane makes a pocket (a mouth)
• Pocket closes around substance to form a
vesicle
• Vesicle fuses with organelles to release
contents
37. What is the difference between
phagocytosis and pinocytosis?
• Phagocytosis takes in large particles or
bacteria cells and pinocytosis takes in
fluids and solutes
38. Compare the steps of
Endocytosis and Exocytosis.
• Exocytosis steps are in reverse order
passive
• 39. Diffusion is ______
transport, where
high
molecules move from ____
to low
energy
concentration and do NOT require _____.
• 40. In the diagram below, draw an arrow for the flow of molecules in
diffusion to reach homeostasis.
•
Membrane
Membrane
•
XXXX
X
X
X X
X
X
•
X X
X
X
•
X X
X
X
X X
X
•
X X X
X
X
X
X
X
(BEFORE DIFFUSION)
(AFTER DIFFUSION)
carrier
• 41. Facilitated diffusion uses ________
proteins to move large & polar molecules
from high to low concentration. The main
difference in facilitated diffusion is that is
faster
much ______
(speed) than regular
diffusion.
• 42. Osmosis is another type of diffusion
but it involves the movement of water from
high to ____
low
____
concentration of water.
• 43. H2O goes to areas where there are
_____
solutes.
more
• 44. Hypotonic solution means there is less
solutes in the solution than there is in the
cell.
HYPOTONIC SOLUTION the
• 45. When a cell is in a_____________,
into
water will flow ____
the cell and the cell’s
increase
size will_______.
• 46. Isotonic solution means there is
the same amount
__________of
solutes in the solution as
there is in the cell.
ISOTONIC
• 47. When a cell is in an________,
the
SOLUTION
_________water
will flow _______of
the
in and out
stay the same
cell and the cell’s size will________.
• 48. Hypertonic solution means there is
more
______
solutes in the solution than there
is in the cell.
HYPERTONIC SOLUTION the
• 49. When a cell is in a____________,
water will flow out of the cell and the cell’s
shrink
size will______.
50. What is turgor pressure?
• Force a vacuole has against the cell
membrane and wall
• 51. When the vacuole is full and pushes
the organelles against the cell
high
membrane/wall, it has ____turgor
pressure.
52. What happens when the there
is low turgor pressure?
• The plant will wilt
53. What causes plasymolysis?
• Low turgor pressure
54. Know cell parts