Section 18-3 - Effingham County Schools

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Transcript Section 18-3 - Effingham County Schools

The Six Kingdoms
Organisms are placed into kingdoms based
on five questions
1. Prokaryotic or Eukaryotic?
2. Unicellular or Multicellular?
3. Producer or Consumer?
4. Does it have a cell wall or not?
5. Does it live in extreme environments?
DNA
Nucleus
with DNA
1
Prokaryotic
Cells
Eukaryotic
Cells
3
Prokaryotic
Cells
Eukaryotic
Cells
1
2
Prokaryotic
Cells
Eukaryotic
Cells
3
Cell
1
Membrane
Prokaryotic
Cells
2
DNA
Eukaryotic
Cells
Cytoplasm
3
Cell
1
Membrane
1
2
Prokaryotic
Cells
3
2
DNA
Eukaryotic
Cells
4
5
Cytoplasm
3
1
2
Prokaryotic
Cells
3
4
5
Bacteria1
No Nucleus
2
No Organelles
3
4
Unicellular
Microscopic5
Prokaryotic
Cells
Bacteria
Cell
1
Membrane
1
2
No
Nucleus
No
Organelles
Prokaryotic
Cells
2
DNA
3
4
5
Eukaryotic
Cells
Unicellular
Microscopic
6
Cytoplasm
3
7
Organelles
1
2 Nucleus
3 Multicellular organisms
Eukaryotic
Cells
4 Protists
5Plants
6 Fungi
7Animals
Bacteria
Cell
1
Membrane
Organelles
1
2
Nucleus
No
Nucleus
No
Organelles
Prokaryotic
Cells
2
DNA
Multicellu
Eukaryotic
Cells
Protists
5
Plants
Unicellular
Fungi
Microscopic
Cytoplasm
3
Animals
• Unicellular – organisms that exist in nature
as a single cell; usually microscopic
• Multicellular – organisms that are more
complex; usually with tissues and organs
• Producers – (a. k a. autotrophs) organisms
that can carry out photosynthesis to obtain
energy
• Consumers – (a.k.a. heterotrophs)
organism that eat producers or other
consumers to obtain energy
Kingdom Archaebacteria
1. Prokaryote
2. Have a cell wall and some use
flagella or cilia for movement
3. Unicellular
4. Autotrophic or heterotrophic
5. Asexual
6. Methanogens and halophiles
– Live in very extreme
environments
– Only recently recognized as a
separate bacteria kingdom
– Can be helpful & harmful
Kingdom Eubacteria
1. Prokaryote
2. Have cell walls and
some use flagella or cilia
for movement
3. Unicellular
4. Autotrophic or
Heterotrophic
5. Asexual
6. E-coli & Streptococcus
– Can be helpful & harmful
– Largest of the two bacteria
kingdoms & can live
almost anywhere
Kingdom Protista
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Eukaryote
Nucleus, and many other
organelles
Most unicellular or some
multicellular
Autotrophs or heterotrophs
Most reproduce asexually,
some sexually
Paramecium. Amoeba, algae
–
–
Very diverse kingdom
The “Junk Drawer”
Algae
Kingdom Fungi
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Eukaryote
Nucleus and many
organelles; cell walls of chitin
Multicellular (except yeast)
All Heterotrophs– they eat!
Can reproduce asexually
with spores or sexually
Examples: Mushrooms,
mold, lichens
–
–
Important decomposers
Nature’s Recyclers
Kingdom Plantae
1. Eukaryote
2. Nucleus and many
organelles, cell walls of
cellulose
3. All Multicellular
4. All are Autotrophs
5. Reproduce sexually with
pollen or asexually
6. Trees, grass, ferns
–
Oxygen producers
Kingdom Animalia
1. Eukaryote
2. Nucleus and many
organelles, do not have
cell walls
3. All Multicellular
4. All Heterotrophs
5. Reproduce sexually or
asexually
6. Examples: insects, fish,
humans
–
Hey! That’s You!
Three Species of Warblers and
Their Niches
Section 4-2
Cape May Warbler
Feeds at the tips of branches
near the top of the tree
Bay-Breasted Warbler
Feeds in the middle
part of the tree
Spruce tree
Go to
Section:
Yellow-Rumped Warbler
Feeds in the lower part of the tree and
at the bases of the middle branches
Cladogram of Six Kingdoms and
Three Domains
Section 18-3
DOMAIN
ARCHAEA
DOMAIN
EUKARYA
Kingdoms
DOMAIN
BACTERIA
Go to
Section:
Eubacteria
Archaebacteria
Protista
Plantae
Fungi
Animalia
Figure 18-12 Key Characteristics of
Kingdoms
and Domains
Section
18-3
Classification of Living Things
DOMAIN
Bacteria
KINGDOM
Eubacteria
CELL TYPE
CELL
STRUCTURES
NUMBER OF
CELLS
Eukarya
Prokaryote
Cell walls
with
peptidoglyc
an
Unicellular
MODE OF
NUTRITION
Autotroph/
heterotroph
EXAMPLES
Strep.,
E- coli
Go to
Section:
Archaea
Protist web site
Figure 18-12 Key Characteristics of
Kingdoms
and Domains
Section
18-3
Classification of Living Things
DOMAIN
Bacteria
Archaea
KINGDOM
Eubacteria
Archaebacteria
CELL TYPE
CELL
STRUCTURES
NUMBER OF
CELLS
Eukarya
Prokaryote
Prokaryote
Cell walls
with
peptidoglyc
an
Cell walls
without
peptidoglycan
Unicellular
Unicellular
MODE OF
NUTRITION
Autotroph/
heterotroph
Autotroph or
heterotroph
EXAMPLES
Strep.,
E- coli
X-tremophiles
Go to
Section:
Protist web site
Figure 18-12 Key Characteristics of
Kingdoms
and Domains
Section
18-3
Classification of Living Things
DOMAIN
Bacteria
Archaea
KINGDOM
Eubacteria
Archaebacteria
CELL TYPE
CELL
STRUCTURES
NUMBER OF
CELLS
Eukarya
Prokaryote
Prokaryote
Eukaryote
Cell walls
with
peptidoglyc
an
Cell walls
without
peptidoglycan
Cell walls of
cellulose in
some; some
have
chloroplasts
Most
unicellular;
some
colonial;
some
multicellular
Unicellular
Unicellular
MODE OF
NUTRITION
Autotroph/
heterotroph
Autotroph or
heterotroph
EXAMPLES
Strep.,
E- coli
X-tremophiles
Go to
Section:
Protista
Autotroph or
heterotroph
Amoeba,
Paramecium,
slime molds,
giant kelp
Protist web site
Figure 18-12 Key Characteristics of
Kingdoms
and Domains
Section
18-3
Classification of Living Things
DOMAIN
Bacteria
Archaea
KINGDOM
Eubacteria
Archaebacteria
CELL TYPE
CELL
STRUCTURES
NUMBER OF
CELLS
Eukarya
Fungi
Prokaryote
Prokaryote
Eukaryote
Cell walls
with
peptidoglyc
an
Cell walls
without
peptidoglycan
Cell walls of
Cell walls of
cellulose in
chitin
some; some
have
chloroplasts
Most
unicellular;
some
colonial;
some
multicellular
Unicellular
Unicellular
MODE OF
NUTRITION
Autotroph/
heterotroph
Autotroph or
heterotroph
EXAMPLES
Strep.,
E- coli
X-tremophiles
Go to
Section:
Protista
Autotroph or
heterotroph
Eukaryote
Most
multicellular;
some
unicellular
Heterotroph
Mushrooms,
Amoeba,
yeasts
Paramecium,
slime molds,
giant kelp
Protist web site
Figure 18-12 Key Characteristics of
Kingdoms
and Domains
Section
18-3
Classification of Living Things
DOMAIN
Bacteria
Archaea
KINGDOM
Eubacteria
Archaebacteria
CELL TYPE
CELL
STRUCTURES
NUMBER OF
CELLS
Eukarya
Fungi
Prokaryote
Prokaryote
Eukaryote
Cell walls
with
peptidoglyc
an
Cell walls
without
peptidoglycan
Cell walls of
Cell walls of
cellulose in
chitin
some; some
have
chloroplasts
Most
unicellular;
some
colonial;
some
multicellular
Unicellular
Unicellular
MODE OF
NUTRITION
Autotroph/
heterotroph
Autotroph or
heterotroph
EXAMPLES
Strep.,
E- coli
X-tremophiles
Go to
Section:
Protista
Autotroph or
heterotroph
Eukaryote
Plantae
Eukaryote
Cell walls of
cellulose;
chloroplasts
Most
multicellular;
some
unicellular
Multicellular
Heterotroph
Autotroph
Mushrooms,
Amoeba,
yeasts
Paramecium,
slime molds,
giant kelp
Protist web site
Mosses,
ferns,
flowering
plants
Figure 18-12 Key Characteristics of
Kingdoms
and Domains
Section
18-3
Classification of Living Things
DOMAIN
Bacteria
Archaea
KINGDOM
Eubacteria
Archaebacteria
CELL TYPE
CELL
STRUCTURES
NUMBER OF
CELLS
Eukarya
Fungi
Prokaryote
Prokaryote
Eukaryote
Cell walls
with
peptidoglyc
an
Cell walls
without
peptidoglycan
Cell walls of
Cell walls of
cellulose in
chitin
some; some
have
chloroplasts
Most
unicellular;
some
colonial;
some
multicellular
Unicellular
Unicellular
MODE OF
NUTRITION
Autotroph/
heterotroph
Autotroph or
heterotroph
EXAMPLES
Strep.,
E- coli
X-tremophiles
Go to
Section:
Protista
Autotroph or
heterotroph
Eukaryote
Plantae
Eukaryote
Cell walls of
cellulose;
chloroplasts
Most
multicellular;
some
unicellular
Multicellular
Heterotroph
Autotroph
Mushrooms,
Amoeba,
yeasts
Paramecium,
slime molds,
giant kelp
Protist web site
Animalia
Eukaryote
No cell walls
or
chloroplasts
Multicellular
Mosses,
ferns,
flowering
plants
Heterotroph
Sponges,
worms,
insects,
fishes,
mammals
Concept Map
Section 18-3
Living
Things
are characterized by
Eukaryotic
cells
and differing
Important
characteristics
which place them in
Cell wall
structures
such as
Domain
Eukarya
Prokaryotic cells
which is subdivided into
which place them in
Domain
Bacteria
Domain
Archaea
which coincides with
which coincides with
Kingdom
Eubacteria
Kingdom
Archaebacteria
Go to
Section:
Kingdom
Plantae
Kingdom
Fungi
Kingdom
Protista
Kingdom
Animalia
Levels of Organization
Section 1-3
Biosphere
The part of Earth
that contains all
ecosystems
Biosphere
Ecosystem
Community and
its nonliving
surroundings
Hawk, snake, bison, prairie dog, grass, stream, rocks, air
Community
Populations that
live together in a
defined area
Hawk, snake, bison, prairie dog, grass
Population
Group of
organisms of one
type that live in
the same area
Bison herd
Go to
Section:
Levels of Organization continued
Section 1-3
Organism Individual living
thing
Bison
Tissues, organs,
Groups of and organ systems
Cells
Brain
Nervous tissue
Cells
Nervous system
Smallest functional
unit of life
Nerve cell
Groups of atoms;
smallest unit of
Molecules most chemical
compounds
Go to
Section:
Water
DNA
Abiotic and Biotic Factors
Section 4-2
Abiotic Factors
Biotic Factors
ECOSYSTEM
Go to
Section: