CELL ORGANELLES - Indiana University

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Transcript CELL ORGANELLES - Indiana University

CELL ORGANELLES
Structures that perform
specific functions within the
cell
I. Plasma (Cell) Membrane
A. Outer layer around cell
1. Separates cell from outer environment
B. Controls what enters and leaves the
cell
C. Allows cell to interact with
environment
1. Receive messages and get rid of wastes
Hydrophilic – “water-loving”
Hydrophobic – “water-fearing”
PROTEINS
Plasma (Cell) Membrane
D. Phospholipid bilayer
E. Three types of Proteins
1. Cell markers
2. Receptors
3. Transport or channel
NUCLEUS
II. Nucleus
A. Nuclear envelope –double
membrane surrounds nucleus
B. Stores DNA
C. Nucleolus – dense area of DNA
1. makes ribosomes
MITOCHONDRIA
III. Mitochondria
A.
B.
C.
D.
Energy center
“Powerhouse” of the cell
Turns food (glucose) into usable
energy (ATP)
Site of Cellular Respiration
IV. Ribosomes
Roughly spherical
B. Made of RNA and protein
C. Make protein
D. Some are free. Others are
attached to the rough
endoplasmic reticulum
A.
V. Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
A. Tubes and sacs called cisternae
B. Transport, “intracellular highway”
• Helps maintain homeostasis
C. Rough ER = ribosomes
• Produces phospholipids & proteins
D. Smooth ER = no ribosomes
• Builds lipids such as cholesterol
VI. Golgi
Apparatus
A.
B.
C.
D.
Like a factory
Receives sacs from ER
Processes, packages and secretes
proteins
Sends “product” out by vesicles
VI. Lysosomes
Contain digestive enzymes
B. Causes organelles or cells that are
not functioning properly to die
(autolysis)
C. Some digest material brought into
cell
A.

Monomers of four macromolecules
VII. Other Vesicles
A.
B.
C.
Peroxisomes – breakdown alcohol
and kill bacteria (liver and kidney)
Glyoxysomes – convert stored fats
to energy in plants
Food vacuoles – stores nutrients
VIII. CYTOSKELETON
Microtubules
B. Microfilaments – help in movement
C. Cilia and Flagella – hairlike structures
that create movement
A.
D. Centrioles
1. Consists of 2 short cylinders of
microtubules
• (hold organelles in place, maintains
cell shape)
2. Important during cell division
3. Animals only