Chapter 6 A Tour of a Cell - Christopher Dock Mennonite

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Transcript Chapter 6 A Tour of a Cell - Christopher Dock Mennonite

Chapter 6 A Tour of a Cell
6.1 All organisms are made of cells
6.2 Membranes organize a cell’s activities
6.3 Membranes regulate the traffic of
molecules
6.4 The cell builds a diversity of products
6.5 Chloroplasts and mitochondria
energize cells
6.6 An internal skeleton supports the cell
and enables movement
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6.1 All organisms are made of cells
Objectives
 Explain the main ideas of the cell theory.
 Describe how microscopes aid the study of
cells.
 Compare and contrast animal cells and
plant cells.
 Distinguish between prokaryotic and
eukaryotic cells

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What do you have in common with..
Cells!
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6.1 Explain the main ideas of the cell theory
Scientists, using microscopes, found cells
in every organism they examined.

This led to the cell theory—
1. All living things are composed of cells
2. Cells are the basic unit of structure and
function in living things.
3. All cells come from pre-existing cells.
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6.1 Describe how microscopes aid the study of cells.
Light microscopes (LM) 1000x actual size.
 Electron microscope uses a beam of
electrons. 1,000,000 x,
enough to reveal details of the structures
inside a cell.
 Scanning electron microscope
(SEM) surface of cells
 Transmission electron microscope
(TEM) inside of cells
Micrographs are photos through a
microscope.
Notations like LM 200x

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Light Microscopes in
Classroom
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Try labeling without notes
4x
10x
40x
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6.1 Compare and contrast animal cells and plant cells.
Main Differences
Animal
Plant
cilia
cell wall
contractile vacuole
central vacuole
centrioles
chloroplast
There are Prokaryotic-(no nucleus) and Eukaryotic-(nucleus) in both kingdoms
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6.2 Describe the structure of cellular membranes
.
• Cell membranes are boundaries of all cells
• StructurePhospholipid bilayer
two-layer "sandwich“
of molecules
• Proteins inserted
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6.2 Identify functions of proteins in cellular
membranes.
• Functions of cell membranes
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6.3 Relate diffusion and equilibrium.


Diffusion
the movement of particles from where they
are more concentrated to where they are less
concentrated.
demo
equilibrium, or balance
.
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6.3 Describe how passive transport occurs
Explain how active transport differs from passive transport
Both diffusion and facilitated diffusion are
forms of passive transport,
the cell DOES NOT use energy.
In facilitated diffusion, particles pass
through a channel in a transport protein.
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6.3 Relate osmosis to solute concentration

The passive transport of water across a
selectively permeable membrane is called
osmosis
 Hypertonic-shrink
 Hypotonic-swell
 Isotonic-same
Demo 1
Demo 2
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6.3Describe how large molecules move across a membrane

When a cell expends energy to move
molecules or ions across a membrane, the
process is known as active transport
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6.4 Identify the role of the nucleus in a cell.
A cell's nucleus contains DNA—
molecules that direct cell
activities.
DNA contains
Instructions
For making
proteins
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6.4 Describe ribosomes, endoplasmic reticulum, and the Golgi apparatus
Proteins are made by the
ribosomes.
Transportation membranes
are the endoplasmic reticulum (ER).
Smooth ER- no ribosomes
Rough ER-has ribosomes
Some products that are made in the ER
travel to the Golgi apparatus
which acts as
“shipping and recieving”
of the cell.
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6.4 Distinguish between the functions of vacuoles and lysosomes
Vacuoles store undigested
nutrients
Contractile vacuoles-animals
Central vacuole-plants
– Lysosomes contain digestive enzymes
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6.4 Summarize the path of proteins through membranes.
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6.5 Compare the functions of chloroplasts and mitochondria
.
Chloroplasts are the photosynthetic
organelles found in plants and algae.
 mitochondria are
where cellular respiration occurs.
This process releases energy
from sugars.
Sun’s energy to chloroplast to
Make Glucose to mitochondria to
change glucose to ATP energy

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6.6 Describe the role of the cytoskeleton
in cell movement
cytoskeleton (cyto means "cell"), a
network of fibers extending
throughout the cytoplasm
 Straight, hollow tubes of proteins that give
rigidity, shape, and organization to a cell
are called microtubules

Thinner, solid rods enable the cell to move
or change shape are called
microfilaments
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6.5 Compare and contrast the functions
of flagella and cilia
Flagella are long, thin, whip-like
structures that enable some cells
 to move


Cilia are generally shorter and more
numerous than flagella

Remember that none of a cell’s organelles
works alone. The cooperation of cellular
organelles makes a cell a living unit that is
greater than the sum of its parts
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Organelle
Description
/Nickname
Function
Membrane?
Found in
Procaryotic
cells?
Found in
Eukaryotic
cells?
Animal Plant
Ribosome
Strands of
RNA, with
proteins
attached
Protein
Synthesis
No
Yes
yes
yes
ER
Folds of cell
membrane
Hallways +
Highways
Channels
for
movement
of
substances
Yes
No
yes
yes
Mitochondria
Bean shaped
Powerhouse
Cell
Yes
respiration double
Breakdow
n sugars
No
yes
yes
Plastids
Chromo
Chloroplast
Synthesiz
e sugars
Yes
No
No
yes
Golgi
Bodies
Flat curved
“Post Office”
Moves
things
around
cell
Yes
No
Yes
yes
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Organelle
Description
/Nickname
Function
Membrane?
Found in
Procaryotic
cells?
Found in
Eukaryotic
cells?
Animal Plant
Lysosomes
Contain
enzymes
“Digestion”
“Stomachs”
Digest and
destroy
useless
structures
Yes
No
Yes
yes
Vacuoles
“Tupperware”
Storage
containers
Several
different
types
Yes
No
yes
yes
Nucleus
Control
Center
Cell Division
Sometimes
Not formed
Yes
yes
Centrioles
found in
animals only
Cell division
No
No
Yes
no
Cell
membrane
Boundary
Surrounds
all cells
Yes
Yes
Yes
yes
Flagella
“whip”
Movement
Gather food
Not an
organelle
Yes
Yes
no
Cilia
“eyelashes”
Movement
Gather food
Not an
organelle
Yes
Yes
no
Cell Wall
Plants/algae
Structure
Not an
organelle
Yes
No
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yes