Transcript Folk Music
4 examples A broad term applied to many kinds of music. Also called Traditional Music. There is often no known author/composer. It is passed down aurally/orally. It is indigenous music that evokes the culture and lifestyle of the people from which it comes. Indigenous: having originated in and being produced, growing, living, or occurring naturally in a particular region or environment. American Hymn (liturgical text or scripture was often set to folk tunes) Russian Folk Song Polish Folk Music/Dance Spanish Folk Music/Dance Many folk songs are modal. That is, they use only the notes in a particular scale (series of pitches). There are 7 modes. If you use only the white keys on the piano, you can play the notes in a mode by starting on any key and playing the seven ascending notes. C – Ionian (major scale) D – Dorian E – Phrygian F – Lydian G – Mixolydian A – Aeolian (minor scale) B – Locrian The Doctrine of Ethos: the ancient Greeks believed that music possessed moral qualities and could affect character and behavior. Plato recommended two modes, or styles of song, the Dorian and Phrygian because they fostered the virtues of temperance and courage. When the settlers came to America they sang German chorales and British Psalms (Ein Feste Burg ist unser Gott). Eventually they began to sing hymns composed by Isaac Watts during the Great Awakening. Many hymns were set to folk tunes. New Britain – Amazing Grace Green sleeves – What child is This Saw Ye My Jonny – Saw Ye My Savior A small pocket sized book containing the lyrics and sometimes also the music of hymns. Singing School – Singing Masters would travel from town to town. Often entire towns would attend. It was also viewed as an opportunity for courtship among the young people. Shape-note Notation: fa represented as a triangle, sol as a circle, la as a square, mi as a diamond, etc. Much of Russian folk music was sung a cappella. Instruments were forbidden in church. Russian folk songs tend to move within a narrow range. Rhythmic patterns are often repeated. The meter is often mixed (4/4 time may change to 3/2 time then back again). They are generally modal. The words are very important – poetry. a stringed instrument of Russian origin, with a characteristic triangular body and 3 strings Songs are sung at important rituals and events. Mazurka – a traditional Polish dance that emphasizes the weak beats (or off-beats). Accompanied by dudy or gajdy (Polish Bagpipes) Melody would be played on fujarka (shepherd’s pipe) Dancers stamp or click heals on the displaced beats. Poland’s folk music often used the lydian mode. The lydian mode has a raised 4th. Spain has over 1000 types of dance. Dances can be ritual or non-ritual. Ritual dances are performed by specially rehearsed dancers. Non-ritual dances have simple steps and can be danced by anyone. Traditionally, Flamenco is learned by watching relatives or friends. It is a dance accompanied by guitar The dancer uses hand claps – palmas sordas, finger snaps – pitos, and stomping – taconeo, to express the music and rhythm. The Phrygian mode is typically used.