Transcript The Ancient Greeks
GULF Geography Physical environment and how it may influence an economy and culture. Located between Tigris and Euphrates river in the fertile crescent. Overflow of rivers made land very fertile. Rivers flowed into the Persian Gulf through modern-day Iraq and Kuwait. Irrigation streams allowed for large-scale farming. Economy How a civilization makes money through the buying and selling of goods and services o Surplus of crops enabled cities to grow into trading centers. o Division of labor leads to specialized, non-agricultural jobs like artisans, builders and metalworkers. o Goods were traded as far as Egypt and Pakistan. o Developed trade routes which were traveled by caravan. o Used animals and wheeled carts to move large amounts of goods. o Sumerians used money, which made individual wealth more easily measured and stored. Achievements The lasting contributions of a civilization. Hammurabi's Code Created world’s first city-states. Had the world’s first monarchies. Developed the format of time we still use in the present. Invented wheeled cart and possibly the sailboat. Scribes wrote the “Epic of Gilgamesh”, one of the oldestsurviving and most famous stories ever written. Akkadian Empire was the first empire in the world. Cuneiform was one of the first writing systems in recorded history. An Ancient Scribe In early Mesopotamia scribes carved pictographs into clay tablets. Government/Leadership How a civilization creates an organized way of leadership. Sumer was originally made of 12 separate city-states. Hence, the people called themselves Sumerians. Each city-state was run by its own king. • Sumer united under army leader Sargon, and became world’s first empire. Sargon Akkadian Empire survived 250 years. Babylonian Empire united the numerous city-states under imperial rule. Hammurabi set laws for the entire empire. Religion A belief system that influences the development of a civilization. Polytheistic (the belief in many gods). Nature based gods, and made offerings and animal sacrifices to appease the gods, in hopes that they could influence nature positively . Enlil = air god, Enki = water god Kings were demigods (part man, part gods). Enlil & Enki Social Classes How a civilization is divided into classes that have different roles, responsibilities and privileges. • • • • • Had first ever monarchy (king or queen rule). King and royal family were at top of social order. The middle class made up the majority of society. Women had rights protected by law. Slaves were common, acquired from conquered territories.