The 5 Themes To Ask About A Culture

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Transcript The 5 Themes To Ask About A Culture

The 5 Themes To Ask About A
Culture
Sumer/Mesopotamia
Ancient Egypt
Israelites
By Rachel Boyd
Sumer / Mesopotamia
Location: Ur= 31°N 48°E
Relative Location• In Between the Tigris and Euphrates river
• Present day Iraq
Region/Human Environment
Interaction
Physical Characteristics Euphrates and Tigris River, Plains,
Plateaus, Persian Gulf, Marshes, Trees
Natural Resources Euphrates, Tigris, Clay, Bronze, Copper,
Stone, Tin
Climate/Growing Season/Land use
-They had heavy spring floods and very hot summers
-The land was used for Farming
Change to the Environment
-To change, they built irrigation systems, canals, dams, and gates
to help water crops and control flooding
Economics / Movement
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Goods/Trade
Goods were made by hand and simple tools
Some goods that were produced were jewelry, pottery,
weapons/tools, instruments, fabric, and even board games
Goods were traded in the local Market Place for other items
needed
The Mesopotamians did not have money, but they traded and
kept records of the trades
To transport goods they used the first wheel and sailboats
Political Science/Government
Rulers
They were governed by a king. The first kings were
strong Military leaders for the people needed more
protection and they chose leaders who have
accomplished many things, and were strong. The
kings were then selected by the next male heir,
except when another kingdom conquered their land.
Some of their leaders include Hammurabi, Sargon,
and Gilgamesh.
Laws
The laws they obeyed were Hammurabi’s laws or
they would be punished
Knowledge/Education/The Arts
New Knowledge that developed:
Wheel, a better calendar, advanced writing system,
and an irrigation system, the plow.
What can we learn about them from their culture, art,
writing, ect…
They had a stable economy
They wasted no time on projects
Some of Today’s laws are based on their laws
Religion/Philosophy
Belief about gods:
• They worship over 3000 gods
• Their belief is Polytheism- belief in many gods
• They believed that their gods controlled everything
• They believe that the meaning of life is to please the gods and
worship them
• Their beliefs affect their lives for they spent a big portion of their
day worshiping them and their gods affect everything they
do.Also they used their arts skills and sculpting skills not to
show how good you are, but in honor of the gods
Sociology
They had many families in their country
They had slaves who were often prisoners of war
The Mesopotamians had 3 social classes that
included:
King, Government, Priests, & Wealthy People
Farmers, Fishermen, & Artisans(Women Weavers)
Slaves
Their daily live consists of pleasing the gods, farmers
tending crops and livestock, the women taking care
of the family and the chores(unless wealthy), and
some people traded at the Market
Ancient Egypt
Location: Cairo- 30°E 30°N
Relative LocationNear the Mediterranean and Red Sea
Above Sudan
In Africa
Region/Human Environmental
Interaction
Physical Characteristics
Black silt, Nile River, desert land, cataracts, papyrus plants,
marshlands, farm land, delta
Natural Resources
Gold, copper, granite, limestone, basalt, quartzite, cotton, linen,
mud, Nile River, Papyrus
Climate/Seasons
Dry, arid and hot, very little rain
The seasons are:
Flood season, Planting season, Harvest season
Adapting to the environment
The Egyptians lived near the Nile and used it as a
transportation system
They wore heavy clothing to protect them from the sun
Ecomonics/Movement
Goods/Trade
Goods were produced by hand and simple tools such
as chisels.
Some goods that were produced were jewelry, food,
baskets, cloth, weapons, ect…
Goods were transported by boat along the Nile, or by
wheel.
Goods were traded for other items that were of equal
worth for they did not have money.
Political Science/ Movement
The people obeyed the Pharaoh and the gods and
goddesses
The Pharaoh had many advisors, but ended up
making the final decision
The Pharaoh made up many laws for the Egyptians
to follow, or they would be punished
The Pharaohs were chosen for they were usually the
eldest son of the current reigning Pharaoh
Knowledge/Education/The Arts
Some new knowledge that they developed were:
-First medical records-48 diseases/symptoms & cures
-Advanced writing system- hieroglyphics
-One of the most architecturally advanced
civilizations-Tomb paintings, temples, pyramids, etc…
We can learn that they are very religious, and all their
art and sculptures and statues are made for their
Pharaoh and gods and not for fame. The Egyptians
were very eager into making it into the Underworld
- shown in tomb paintings
Religion and Philosophy
They believe that they have many gods and
goddesses (including their Pharaoh) that each have a
special job
They believe that the meaning of life is to please and
worship the gods and to live a good life so they may
make it into the afterlife.
Their religion affects their lives for they must be
careful and do only the things that are right so they
may enter the afterlife.
Ex: worshiping gods, doing good deeds, etc…
Sociology
There are many families in Egypt
The Egyptians did have slaves that mainly worked for their Pharaoh or
were used in battle
The Egyptians had 8 classes:
Pharaoh- who was thought of as a god
Priests- they were only ones allowed in temples with the Pharaoh
Royal family- wives, children, relatives…
Officials- responsible for the taxes, royal store houses, and crops
Artisans- carpenters, painters, jewelers, stone masons, and brick makers
Farmers- most Egyptians were farmers, grew crop to supply food
Slaves- served the pharaoh, fought as soldiers, and worked as servants
Daily Lives- hunting, doing chores, worshiping their gods, obeying the
pharaoh, and trading for items needed.
Israelites
Jerusalem- 32˚ N and 35˚E
Relative Location-Near the Mediterranean Sea
-beside Egypt
-below Syria
Region/Human Environmental
Interaction
Physical Characteristics
Jordan River, Hills, Plains, Desert
Natural Resources
Grain, wheat, barley, fish
Climate/Growing Season
Hot with little rain
Growing season was most of the year
They used their natural resources for food and trade
Economics/Movement
Goods were either grown or manmade with simple
tools
Some goods were pottery, cloth, weapons, jewelry,
crops
The goods were exchanged at Trading Routes and
Markets
Instead of money they traded items they had for other
items they needed
They were transported by boat or animal
Political
Science/Government
They were governed by kings
The Kings were chosen some by skill and some by
royal blood
Some great Kings that ruled the Israelites were
David, Saul, and Solomon
The laws that the Israelites followed were the 10
Commandments
Besides the kings, the Israelites followed God’s rules
too
Knowledge/Education/The Arts
Some new knowledge they made were :
Monotheistic religion (Judaism)
The Torah
Sacred Writings
Temples
That shows that they were very religious and wanted
to please and love God
Religion and Philosophy
The Israelites believed in one God
They believe the meaning of life is to please and
worship God
They believe that God is All-Knowing and present
everywhere
The Israelites made a promise to God that if they
follow His laws and love Him, He would love and
protect them
Their belief affects their lives for they are careful
about what they do or say so they do not upset God
Sociology
The Israelites live in groups such as the Family
They did have slaves, but not many
The Israelites thought of each other as equals
Their daily lives consist of:
-Work (whatever their jobs are)
-Worship God
-Mothers do chores and watch the children
-They trade at a Marketplace when they need to
Citations
Ancient Egyptian Market. Panhistoria. 31 May 2009
<http://www.geocities.com/takhaetmentuhotep/market/sellingfood.jpg>.
Azure Green. 31 May 2009 <http://www.azuregreen.com/images/P/SP160.JPG>.
Egypt. Max Energy Limited. 31 May 2009
<http://www.solarnavigator.net/geography/geography_images/egypt_river_nile.jp
g>.
The Egyptians-Egyptian Writing. 31 May 2009
<http://www.egyptweb.norfolk.gov.uk/images/egypt6a.jpg>.
The Race for Ancient Egypt's Treasures. 16 Nov. 2006. FairFax DIgital. 31 May
2009
http://www.theage.com.au/ffximage/2006/11/15/egypt_narrowweb__300x392,0.j
pg.
The World Factbook. 31 May 2009 <https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/theworld-factbook/maps/eg-map.gif>.
Citations
Biblical History of King Solomon's Temple. 31 May 2009
<http://www.phoenixmasonry.org/images/King_Solomon.jpg>.
Israel-Origins and Evolutions. 31 May 2009
<http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/israel/images/israel04.jpg>.
Mummy Case Markings. Google. 31 May 2009 <http://www.unmuseum.org/egods.jpg>.
Slavery in History. Kongsberg. 31 May 2009
<http://www.visitandlearn.co.uk/topicalfactfiles/images/slavery3.jpg>.
The Jordan River. 31 May 2009
<http://www.admin.technion.ac.il/iaeste/gallery/JordanRiver.jpg>.
ArcImaging Urartu Photo Album. 3 Nov. 2000. 31 May 2009
<http://arcimaging.org/GeisslerRex/HasankeyfTigrisRiver20001.jpg>.
Jerusalem, Israel- Temple Mount. 31 May 2009
<http://farm4.static.flickr.com/3206/2720278372_784300f030.jpg?v=1217526295>.
Mesopotamia and Ancient Persia. 31 May 2009
<http://www.taxson.net/iraq/MAP_MESOPOTAMIA.jpg>.
Mesopotamia and Ancient Persia. 31 May 2009
<http://www.taxson.net/iraq/MAP_MESOPOTAMIA.jpg>.
The Book of Joshua. 31 May 2009 <http://www.workersforjesus.com/manna.jpg>.
Langevin, Sharon. Judaism. 15 Feb. 2007. 31 May 2009
<https://wiki.brown.edu/confluence/download/attachments/19219/judaism.gif>.
Citations
Ancient Mesopotamia- Trade and Commerce. 31 May 2009
<http://mesopotamia.mrdonn.org/meso10.gif>.
Babylon Nurtures the Jewish Priesthood. 31 May 2009
<http://www.jesusneverexisted.com/IMAGES/flood.gif>.
Cuneiform. Google. 31 May 2009 <http://mesopotamia.mrdonn.org/meso08.gif>.
HIGHLIGHTS FROM THE COLLECTION: MESOPOTAMIA. 7 Feb. 2007. 31 May 2009
<http://oi.uchicago.edu/i/highlights/OIM_A30553_c.gif>.
Standing male worshipper. 31 May 2009
<http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/images/h2/h2_40.156.jpg>.