English 105

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Transcript English 105

English 350/355
Monday, February 3, 2014
Melissa Gunby
Of Mice and Men
Reading Discussion?
 Did you have anything you wanted to talk about for this
first chapter of the book?
 Discuss the following quote: “Guys like us, that work on
ranches, are the loneliest guys in the world. They got
no family. They don’t belong no place. They come to a
ranch an’ work up a stake and then they go into town
and blow their stake, and the first thing you know
they’re poundin’ their tail on some other ranch. They
ain’t got a thing to look ahead to.” (George, p.15)
 Steinbeck spends a lot of work describing the setting.
How do you feel about this place? What places have you
seen that are similar?
 What do you think of the way George treats Lennie?
George says he’d like to get rid of Lennie. Do you think
that’s the way he really feels? Give proof for your
 Why?
 What has life been like for George and Lennie in the
past? What do you expect it will be like for them now?
 What would life be like for both these men if they didn’t
have each other?
 What is their dream? What do you think of it?
 What happened in Weed?
 Describe (physically) George and Lennie.
 What is Lennie supposed to do if the boss talks to him?
Reading and Vocab Quiz
Quick Review
 What do you need to make a sentence?
 Where will the subject of a sentence never be found?
 Can a sentence have only one word?
Clauses and Phrases
 Sentences needs subjects and verbs, but are also made
up of clauses and phrases. These other elements of
sentences help us to clarify meaning.
Independent Clauses
 Independent clauses have a subject and verb, and can
stand alone as a sentence
 She ran
 He spoke
 He spoke fluent English
Dependent Clauses
 CANNOT stand alone as sentences, though they will also
contain a subject and verb
 When she ran
 Although he spoke fluent English
Santa Claus
How to tell the difference
 Independent clauses will sound complete.
 Dependent clauses will begin with a connecting word,
and won’t sound complete.
 Although
 When
 And
 Because
 After
 While
 Since
 Santa Claus is a fat man in a red suit with a white beard.
Why it matters
 Knowing the differences between the types of clauses
will help you to identify and correct your mistakes. Some
of the most common errors (run-ons and fragments) are
caused by joining clauses incorrectly.
 Also, by knowing the differences, you can combine
clauses in different ways, which make your sentences
more interesting to a reader.
Questions about clauses?
 Independent Clause (IC): She ran to the store.
 Dependent Clause (DC): Although she ran to the store^
Types of
Noun Phrases
Prepositional Phrases
Verb Phrase
Noun Phrase = noun + modifiers
many large round stones
Prepositional Phrase = preposition
+ object and modifiers
among the large round stones
Verb Phrase = main verb + helping
verbs and modifiers
 were sweetly singing
 has slowly vanished
More Phrases
Infinitive Phrases
 Infinitive Phrase = the word to
with a base verb and words to
complete the phrase
 to move gracefully
Participial Phrases
Present Participle
Past Participle
 A present or past participle and
other words that complete the
phrase (usually an adverb)
 Present: moving gracefully
 Past: greatly encouraged
Gerund Phrases
 Gerund Phrase = a present
participle and other words that
make up the phrase
 Moving gracefully
Infinitive Phrase vs Prepositional
Infinitive Phrase
 Infinitive Phrases will
contain to followed by
the base or root form of
a verb.
 I like to swim when it’s
hot outside.
 If to is used as a
preposition, it will not be
followed by a verb.
 I want to go to the
grocery store.
Participial Phrase vs Gerund
Present Participial
 Present Participial Phrases
will function as adjectives
in sentences
 Running home, I tripped
over a crack in the
In this case, running home
describes what was
happening when “I”
You can think of these as
describing what happened
when something else was
Gerund Phrase
 Gerund phrases will
function as nouns in
 Running home is my
preferred method of
daily exercise.
Running home is the
subject of the sentence.
Your Questions
Compound Sentences
Joining two or more independent clauses
Chapter 19 in Focus on Writing pp 373
Compound Sentences
 There are three ways to combine Independent Clauses
 IC, fanboys IC
 IC; sub, IC
Add a conjunction
 Coordinating conjunctions = FANBOYS
 For – shows reason or cause: the cat chased the mouse, for that’s what
cats do.
 And – shows addition: The boy played, and the girl danced.
 Nor – shows negative contrast: He has no job, nor does he have any
 But – shows contrast: She ate her broccoli, but she didn’t eat her
 Or – shows choice: He has to eat peanut butter, or he will throw a
temper tantrum.
 Yet – shows contrast: It was raining, yet he went outside to play.
 So – shows consequence or result: He hit my car, so I hit him.
 Use FANBOYS carefully; because each one has a specific
meaning, they can’t be used interchangeably.
Practice 19-1 (pp 374-375)
Sentence Combining, Mad Lib
 I need 10 FANBOYS:
 1. and
 2. or
 3. but
 1. My brother and I went to
the mall
 2. My friends and I went to a
 3. The cat ate a mouse
 4. nor
 4. The dog ran down the
 5. yet
 5. my dog chewed my shoe
 6. so
 6. I like purple hippos
 7. for
 7. She cut her hair
 8. yet
 8. It was fun the first day of
 9. or
 10. and
 9. I love the smell of roses
 10. I went to the store
Sentence Combining, Mad Lib
 Second hand smoke is dangerous, and my brother and I
went to the mall.
 Many cars are now equipped with GPS systems, or my
friends and I went to a concert.
Any Questions about FANBOYS?
IC; sub, IC
 Subs, subordinating conjunctions, or transitional words
and phrases, work like FANBOYS, but have to be used
with a semi-colon and a comma.
 Common Subs = however, although, therefore, for
 She went to the store; however, she had no money to
 She had no money; therefore, she couldn’t buy the
shoes she wanted.
 The shoes were pretty fantastic; although, she really
didn’t have anywhere to wear them.
 She tried to earn the money; for example, she tried
being a prostitute, but no one wanted her.
Practice 19-6 pp 381
Practice 19-9 (pp384-85)
 Row 1 = #1
 Row 2 = #2
 Row 3 = #3
 Row 4 = #4
 Row 5 = #5
 You can also link together two related ICs with just a
 The sentences have to be related in order for this to
 Yes: My cat killed a mouse; I was disgusted
 No: My cat killed a mouse; I like purple unicorns
Practice 19-5 pp 378
 Complete the sentence with a second IC:
 Fast-food restaurants are an American institution;
 McDonald’s is known for its hamburgers;
 Taco Bell serves Mexican-style food;
 Many fast-food restaurants offer some low-fat menu items;
 Many teenagers work there;
 Read “Fish Cheeks” pp 722 and answer the “Focus On”
questions that follow
 Do any practices from chapter 19 that we didn’t do in
class if you need further practice