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Transcript Quote enveloping

Unit 6
Biology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology
Skills focus
Reading
• locating key information in
complex sentences
Writing
• reporting findings from
other sources: paraphrasing
• writing complex sentences
Vocabulary focus
• synonyms,
replacement subjects,
etc. for sentence level
paraphrasing
6.1 Vocabulary
6.2 Reading
6.3 Extending skills
6.4 Extending skills
6.1 Vocabulary
A Study the words in the box.
1 Copy and complete the table. Put
the words in one or more boxes, in
each case.
2 Add affixes to make words for the
empty boxes. (Some will not be
possible.)
3 What is the meaning of each term?
4 Find a synonym for each word.
5 Group the words in the box
according to their stress pattern.
6.1 Vocabulary
Noun
Verb
infection
infect
analysis
analyze
anatomy
anatomize
A Study the words in the box.
Adjective
infectious
analytical
anatomical
Medical meaning
Medical
synonym
(n) invasion of the body by
pathogenic microorganisms and
their multiplication, which can lead
to tissue damage and disease
(n) virus
(n) the separation of a whole into its
constituents in order to study them
(n)
investigation
(adj) related to the structure of a
human or animal body
(adj) bodily
(n)
attributes
characteristics
characterize
characteristic (n) a distinguishing trait
contaminants
contaminate
contaminated (n) a substance that spoils the purity (n)
of something or makes it poisonous
pollutants
6.1 Vocabulary
A Study the words in the box.
Noun
Verb
Adjective
Medical meaning
Medical synonym
conversion
convert
convertible
(v) change the nature, purpose,
or function of something
(v) change
destructive
(n) an event (or the result of an
event) that completely destroys
something
(n) death,
obliteration
generalized
(adj) not biologically
differentiated or adapted to a
specific function or environment
(adj)
undifferentiated
identifiable
(v) recognize as being similar to
something or someone already
known
(v) recognize
destruction
generalist
identification
destroy
generalize
identify
6.1 Vocabulary
Noun
instructions
Verb
instruct
A Study the words in the box.
Adjective
Medical meaning
Medical synonym
instructive
(n) a description of how
something is to be done to bring
about a particular objective
(n) rules,
directions
metabolism
metabolize
metabolic
(adj) system for converting
carbohydrate to energy
(v) convertible,
convert
prevention
prevent
preventative
(v) to stop something from
happening
(v) stop
replication
replicate
replicated
(n) an exact copy of something
(n) reproduction
sign
signify
significant
(n) something which shows a
medical condition/illness exists
(n) indication
specialist
specialize
specialized
(adj) devoted to a particular task
(adj) expert
nucleus
nucleate
nuclear
(n) core component
-
6.1 Vocabulary
Noun
Verb
equator
envelope
envelop
cell
-
A Study the words in the box.
Adjective
Medical meaning
Medical synonym
equatorial
(adj) in a line along the centre
enveloping
(n) substance surrounding another (v) surround
cellular
(n) minimal unit of life with fixed
boundaries
(adj) in a line
along the centre
-
cycle
cycle
cyclical
(n) series of fixed stages
(n) process
separation
separate
separate
(n) move apart from
(n) move apart
daughterly
(n) child or/descended from
(n) child
daughter
-
6.1 Vocabulary
A Study the words in the box.
o
sign, cell
Oo
cycle, daughter
oO
convert, prevent
Ooo
generalized, specialized, nucleus, envelope
oOo
destruction, infection, instructions
oOoo
analysis, contaminants, identify
ooOo
metabolic, replication, separation
ooOoo
anatomical, equatorial
oooOo
characteristics
6.1 Vocabulary
B Study Figure 1a and 1b on the opposite page. Discuss
these questions using words from Exercise A.
1 What do the diagrams show?
2 What does the diagram show about the similarities and differences between human
cells, bacteria and viruses?
3 What does Figure 1b show?
6.1 Vocabulary
B Study Figure 1a and 1b on the opposite page. Discuss
these questions using words from Exercise A.
1 What do the diagrams show?
It shows some components of human cells
and that cells perform different functions in
the body, some components of a bacteria
and some components of a virus.
2 What does the diagram show about the
similarities and differences between human
cells, bacteria and viruses?
Both human cells and bacteria have cell
walls, a nucleus and chromosomes. Viruses
only have RNA/ DNA and a lipid envelope.
Human cells are specialized, while cells in
bacteria tend to be generalized.
6.1 Vocabulary
B Study Figure 1a and 1b on the opposite page. Discuss
these questions using words from Exercise A.
3 What does Figure 1b show?
It shows the five stages of mitosis, in which a cell reproduces itself by
creating an identical copy of its chromosomes.
6.1 Vocabulary
dissolves
C Student A has
written about the cell
reproduction cycle
in Figure 1b, but
there are some
mistakes. Change the
green words, so the
sentences are true.
doubles
align
separate
reappear
daughter
6.1 Vocabulary
D Student B has also
written about the cell
reproduction cycle. Match
each sentence with a
corrected sentence from
Exercise C.
6.1 Vocabulary
dissolves
doubles
align
separate
reappear
daughter
6.1 Vocabulary
E Look at Figures 2 on the opposite page.
1 What does it show?
2 Match the descriptions below the figure to the correct stage.
3 Rewrite one of the descriptions in your own words. Give your sentence to
your partner. Your partner should guess which stage you have described.
4 Rewrite the descriptions of the other three stages.
6.1 Vocabulary
E Look at Figures 2 on the opposite page.
1 What does it show?
The development of a virus.
2 Match the descriptions below the figure to the correct stage.
a) Cell material converted into new viruses, destroying cell in the process = 4
b) Virus infects the cell, injecting DNA through cell membrane = 2
c) Virus attaches to cell = 1
d) Virus DNA replicates itself using cell mechanisms = 3
6.2 Reading
A Study the picture opposite.
1 What is being shown in the picture?
2 What significance might this have in medicine today?
6.2 Reading
B Discuss these questions.
1 List some everyday products or plants that have been used for medicinal
purposes in the past.
2 What have they been used for?
3 Name the discipline related to the study of drugs and medication.
6.2 Reading
C Look at the pictures, the title, the introduction and the first
sentence of each paragraph on the opposite page.
1 What will the text be about?
2 Using your ideas from Exercises A, B and C1, write some research
questions.
6.2 Reading
D Read the text. Does it answer your questions?
6.2 Reading
E Study the highlighted sentences in the text. Find and
underline the subject, verb and object or complement in
each sentence.
Example 1:
An understanding of the principles of pharmacology forms a key
component in the study of medicine.
What is the sentence about? = understanding
What does understanding do? = it forms
What does it form? = a key component
See Skills bank.
Skills bank
Finding the main information
Sentences in academic and technical texts are often very long.
Example:
Following the discovery of the role of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) in
cell replication, scientists looking at DNA’s role in controlling this
process were able to automatically make the link between chemistry
and biology much clearer, allowing them to carry out even more detailed
analysis.
You often don’t have to understand every word, but you must identify
the subject, the verb and the object, if there is one.
For example, in the sentence above, we find:
subject = scientists
verb = make
object = link
Skills bank
Finding the main information
Remember!
You can remove any leading prepositional phrases at this point to help you
find the subject, e.g., Following the discovery …
You must then find the main words which modify the subject, the verb and the
object or complement.
In the sentence above we find:
Which scientists? = those researching DNA’s role in controlling cell replication
How make? = automatically
What link? = the one between chemistry and biology
6.2 Reading
E Study the highlighted sentences in the text. Find and underline
the subject, verb and object or complement in each sentence.
Subject
Verb
Object/complement
An understanding of the
principles of pharmacology forms
a key component in the study of
medicine.
Students of
pharmacology
look
at
the way in which the biochemical,
physiological and psychological
processes in health and disease are
affected by drugs.
is
the study of the effect of chemicals
and drugs on the functioning of the
autonomic nervous system.
Firstly, there is
autonomic pharmacology,
which
6.2 Reading
E Study the highlighted sentences in the text. Find and underline
the subject, verb and object or complement in each sentence.
Subject
Antibiotic penicillin is a good
example
Verb
is
Object/complement
of the effects of chemicals on
biological systems
Having made significant
advances in the field,
researchers
have now
created
Both discoveries
are sure to far-reaching consequences for
have
the future of medicine
so-called ‘designer drugs’
6.2 Reading
F Two students paraphrased part of the text.
1 Which parts of the text are these paraphrases of?
2 Which paraphrase is better? Why?
See Vocabulary bank.
Vocabulary bank
Reporting findings
You cannot use another writer’s words unless you directly quote. Instead, you
must restate or paraphrase.
There are several useful ways to do this:
use a synonym of a word or
phrase
relieve ➔ ease
in the beginning ➔ early in the cycle
change negative to positive
and vice versa
the treatment alleviated the symptoms
➔the treatment didn’t exacerbate the symptoms
use a replacement subject
symptoms may improve ➔ there may be an improvement
in the symptoms
change from active to
passive or vice versa
the lotion can sooth the itching ➔ the itching can be
soothed by the lotion
change the order of
information
in the beginning, the drug had adverse side effects
➔ there were adverse side effects early on in the cycle
Vocabulary bank
Reporting findings
When reporting findings from one source, you should use all the
methods above.
Example:
The number of chromosomes in the cell
Original text
doubles during the prophase.
Report
In the prophase, there are twice as many
chromosomes in the cell compared with the
normal number.
Vocabulary bank
Reporting findings
Important
When paraphrasing, you should aim to make sure that 90% of the words
you use are different from the original. It is not enough to change only a
few vocabulary items: this will result in plagiarism.
Example:
Original text
The product of the cycle is two daughter
cells which have been created from the
original cell.
Plagiarism
The result of the cycle is the creation of
two daughter cells from the original cell.
6.2 Reading
F Two students paraphrased part of the text.
1 Which parts of the text are these paraphrases of?
The second part of paragraph 5.
2 Which paraphrase is better? Why?
Student B’s paraphrase is better, because it uses fewer words from
the original text and uses different sentence structures.
6.2 Reading
G Work in groups. Write a paraphrase of a different part of
the text.
6.3 Extending skills
A Study the words in box a from the text in
Lesson 2.
1 What part of speech are they in the text?
2 Find one or more words in the text with a similar meaning to
each word.
6.3 Extending skills
Word
A Study the words in box a from the text in
Lesson 2.
Part of speech
Similar meaning
eliminate
v (T)
destroy
adverse
adj
harmful
soothing
adj
calming
therapeutic
adj
healing
toxic
adj
poisonous
characteristics
n (C)
properties
n (C)/U
matter
substance
6.3 Extending skills
B Complete the summary with words from Exercise A.
You may need to change the form of the words.
6.3 Extending skills
B Complete the summary with words from Exercise A.
You may need to change the form of the words.
Pharmacology is essentially the study of drugs. Drugs are ____________
toxic
substances
that
are both ______ and beneficial,
with different _______________ that
characteristics
react on the human body. Some drugs might be used in the
eliminating
treatment of certain diseases, for example _____________ infection,
therapeutic
while others are _____________,
____________ soothing
and relieve the patient’s
adverse
symptoms. However, some drugs can have quite _________ effects
on
the human body. Such drugs are the subject of the study of
toxicology, which also takes into consideration the effect of
contaminants from the patient’s environment.
6.3 Extending skills
C Study the words in box b.
1 What is each base word and its meaning?
2 How does the affix change the part of speech?
3 What is the meaning in the text in Lesson 6.2?
6.3 Extending skills
C Study the words in box b.
Base and meaning
beneficial
(1)
benefit:
1. (n, C/U) an
advantage/improvement gained ~(c)ial = adjective
ending
from a situation
2. (v, T) to have a good effect on;
be useful
helpful, useful,
good
chemical (n, C): a substance
used in chemistry or produced
by a process involving chemistry
relating to the
chemical
substances and
processes in
living things
biochemical
(2)
Effect of affix
Meaning in
text
Word
bio~ = related to
living things or
someone’s life
6.3 Extending skills
C Study the words in box b.
Word
Base and meaning
Effect of affix
Meaning in text
functioning
(2)
function (n, C/U): something
that happens in
your body, or something
that part of your body does
~ing = gerund form
indicating the
process of functions
happening within
the body
the ability of
something
to work
correctly
molecular
(3)
molecule (n, C): the smallest
part of an element or
compound that is capable of
independent existence
~ar = adjective
ending
relating to
molecules
interact (3)
act (v, I): to start to have an
effect on
inter~ = between
to affect or change
one another in
some way
6.3 Extending skills
C Study the words in box b.
Word
Base and meaning
scientific (5)
science (n, U): the study and
knowledge of the physical
world, based experiments
and facts that can be proved
relaxant (5)
relax (v, T): to make your
muscles or part of your body
feel less tight and more
comfortable
Effect of affix
~ific = adjective
ending
~ant = noun
form
Meaning in text
relating to science,
or based on its
methods
something, especially
a drug, that relaxes
you
6.3 Extending skills
Word
immobilize
(5)
antiviral
(6)
C Study the words in box b.
Base and meaning
Effect of affix
im~ = not, no
~ize = verb form,
mobile (adj) able to move meaning to become
or to make
something become
virus (n, C): a simple living
anti~ = preventing or
thing, smaller than
curing something
bacteria, that can enter
~al = adjective
the body and make you
ending
sick
Meaning in text
to make something
unable to move
effective against
viruses
6.3 Extending skills
D Study sentences A–E on the opposite page.
1 Copy and complete Table 1. Put the parts of each sentence in the correct
column.
2 Rewrite the main part of each sentence, changing the verb from active to
passive or vice versa.
6.3 Extending skills
Main subject
Main verb
D Study sentences A–E on the opposite page.
Main
Object/ complement
Other verbs + their subjects +
objects/complements
B
Students of
pharmacology
look
at
the biochemical,
physiological and
psychological
processes
C
the discipline
to
divide
into four distinct
areas
It is possible
D
The fourth and
final area of
the discipline
toxicology
which looks at the
adverse effects of
chemicals on the body
E
Information
about such
plants
is
was
handed
down
1 the way in which
2 in health and disease
3 are affected by dugs
from generation to providing the basis for
generation
much of our knowledge
Adverbial
phrases
today
6.3 Extending skills
D Study sentences A–E on the opposite page.
2 Rewrite the main part of each sentence, changing the verb from active
to passive or vice versa.
A Today doctors use a drug which possesses similar characteristics to relax
their patients’ muscles during surgery.
B The way in which drugs affect the biochemical, physiological and
psychological processes in health and disease is looked at by students of
pharmacology.
C The discipline can be divided into four distinct areas.
D The adverse effects of chemicals on the body are looked at in toxicology, the
fourth and final area of the discipline.
E Hunters handed down information about such plants from generation to
generation, providing the basis for much of our knowledge today.
6.3 Extending skills
E Look at the ‘Other verbs’ column in Table 1.
1 How are the clauses linked to the main part of the sentence?
Sentences A, B and D use relative clauses. E uses a participle clause (Providing
the basis for).
2 In sentences A, B and D, what does each relative pronoun refer to?
A which = a drug
B which = the way
D which = toxicology
3 Make the clauses into complete sentences.
A A drug possessing similar characteristics is used by doctors.
B The biochemical, physiological and psychological processes of health and
disease can be affected in many ways by drugs.
D Toxicology looks at the adverse effects of chemicals on the body.
E Such information provides the basis for much of our knowledge today.
6.4 Extending skills
A Make one sentence for each
box on the right, using the
method given in green. Include
the words in bold. Write all the
sentences as one paragraph.
Skills bank
Ellipsis
Sometimes, if the meaning is clear, words are implied rather than
actually given in the text.
Examples:
There were many strategies (which were) considered by such
companies.
Vodafone’s name was displayed on the football shirts and
(Vodafone’s name was displayed) at the football grounds.
6.4 Extending skills
A Make one sentence for each
box on the right, using the
method given in green.
Include the words in bold.
Write all the sentences as one
paragraph.
Five thousand years ago, the first medical ‘handbook’
was compiled by the Sumerians in which symptoms
of illnesses were listed.
Prescriptions for medicinal plants and animal parts
used for the treatment of symptoms were included in
the handbook.
Later, complex theories which explain the causes and
treatment of diseases were developed by the Ancient
Egyptians.
As a result, having combined physical effects such as
inducing drowsiness with the belief they could drive
out evil spirits, we learn that the Ancient Egyptians
believed sickness derived from the supernatural.
6.4 Extending skills
B Study the notes on the opposite
page which a student has made
about another example from the
history of pharmacology.
1 Divide the notes into sections
to make suitable paragraphs.
2 Decide which ideas are suitable
topic sentences for the paragraphs.
3 Make full sentences from the
notes, joining ideas where possible,
to make one continuous text.
6.4 Extending skills
B Study the notes on the opposite page which a student has made about another
example from the history of pharmacology.
1 Divide the notes into sections to make suitable paragraphs.
Medicinal plant: ginseng = 1 of best e.g.s
• ginseng fr root = resembles human figure
• used in Chinese medicine – 1,000s yrs
• sweet + faint aroma
• known as ‘root of life’
• + medicinal props
• adapts to human system – combats neg.
conditions, e.g. stress/malnutrition/ageing
6.4 Extending skills
B Study the notes on the opposite page which a student has made about another
example from the history of pharmacology.
1 Divide the notes into sections to make suitable paragraphs.
Traditionally Chinese belief = ginseng balance yin + yang in body
• + Native American women: e.g. = – menstrual probs
• e.g.s of > 25 medical problems used:
– anaemia
– indigestion
– impotence
– depression
– sleep patterns
– increase energy
6.4 Extending skills
B Study the notes on the opposite page which a student has made about another
example from the history of pharmacology.
1 Divide the notes into sections to make suitable paragraphs.
Other points – remember =
• + slight bitter taste
• metal → destroy healing props
• therefore prepare in earthenware
• avoid + caffeine/stimulants → irritable
6.4 Extending skills
B Study the notes on the opposite page which a student has made about another
example from the history of pharmacology.
1 Divide the notes into sections to make suitable paragraphs.
Today still used
• find – health stores across world
• buy in different forms:
– dried 4 herbal tea
– whole
– sliced
– energy drink
• However, bear in mind – some – reactions
• Side effects < + longer to emerge/conventional meds = rash/nausea + headaches (=
rare) → ↓dosage.
If s.e. contin. → discontin.
6.4 Extending skills
B Study the notes on the opposite page which a student has made about another
example from the history of pharmacology.
3 Make full sentences from the notes, joining ideas where possible, to make one
continuous text.
Medicinal plant: ginseng = 1 of best e.g.s
One of the best-known examples of a medicinal plant is ginseng. Ginseng
comes from the root of a plant. This root resembles a human figure and has
been used in Chinese medicine for thousands of years. This sweet and faintly
aromatic herb is also known as the ‘root of life’.
Ginseng possesses medicinal properties. It has an ability to naturally adapt to
the human system to combat adverse conditions such as stress, malnutrition
and the ageing process.
6.4 Extending skills
B Study the notes on the opposite page which a student has made about another
example from the history of pharmacology.
3 Make full sentences from the notes, joining ideas where possible, to make one
continuous text.
Traditionally Chinese belief = ginseng balance yin + yang in body
Traditionally, the Chinese believe that ginseng balances the yin and yang in the
human body. While Native American women tended to use it to combat
menstrual problems, for example. The ginseng root is recommended for more
than 25 medical problems, for example anaemia, indigestion, impotence and
depression. It is also used to improve sleep patterns and increase energy.
6.4 Extending skills
B Study the notes on the opposite page which a student has made about another
example from the history of pharmacology.
3 Make full sentences from the notes, joining ideas where possible, to make one
continuous text.
Other points – remember
There are a few others points to remember about ginseng. It has a slightly
bitter taste for example, and must be prepared in earthenware containers
as opposed to metal ones, as metal destroys its healing properties. It is also
best to avoid taking ginseng with caffeine or other stimulants as it can cause
irritability.
6.4 Extending skills
B Study the notes on the opposite page which a student has made about another
example from the history of pharmacology.
3 Make full sentences from the notes, joining ideas where possible, to make one
continuous text.
Today still used
Ginseng is still used today. Indeed it can be found in health stores across the
world. It can be bought in various forms; including dried to make herbal tea,
sliced and whole. It can also be bought in the form of an energy drink.
However, one should bear in mind that some people may react badly to
ginseng. Side effects, consisting of rashes, nausea and headaches, although
rare, do take longer to emerge than with conventional medication. Dosage
should be reduced immediately. It is suggested that if such side effects persist,
the patient should discontinue use of the herb.
Tips for Reference
6.1 Vocabulary部分,学生课前完成练习A,教师课堂讲解如何描述图表,
讨论练习B、C 、D、E 、 F 。
6.2 Reading部分,让学生阅读课文“Principles of pharmacology ” ,完
成练习A、B、C、D。教师课堂讲解Skills bank中的“Finding the main
information”技能,学习如何分析长句,完成练习E。 教师课堂讲解
Vocabulary bank 中的“Reporting findings”技能,学习如何转述改写句
子,完成练习F、G。
6.3 Extending skills部分,让学生课前完成练习A、B 、 C;课堂教师讲解
练习D 、E ,巩固分析长句的技能。
6.4 Extending skills部分,让学生课后完成练习A 、B ,练习写复合句以
及将主题句扩展成段落。
谢谢欣赏!