Chapter 11 - EduVenture

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Transcript Chapter 11 - EduVenture

CHAPTER 11
Grammar
Fundamentals
THE PARTS OF SPEECH AND
THEIR FUNCTIONS
 Nouns
name people, places things,
qualities, or conditions
Subject of a verb performs the verb’s action
 Object of a verb receives the verb’s action
 Object of a preposition acts as an indirect
object
 An appositive renames a previous noun
 A subject complement completes the subject
after the linking verb

THE PARTS OF SPEECH AND
THEIR FUNCTIONS, CONT’D
 Pronouns
refer to nouns
 Categories
of pronouns
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Personal pronouns refer to people, places, and things
Relative pronouns introduce relative clauses and refer
to preceding nouns
Interrogative pronouns introduce questions
Demonstrative pronouns point to nouns/pronouns
Indefinite pronouns refer to non-specified individuals
and groups
Intensive, reflexive, and reciprocal pronouns refer to
various relationships with preceding nouns/pronouns
THE PARTS OF SPEECH AND
THEIR FUNCTIONS, CONT’D
 Verbs
convey an action, a state of being, or
combine with a main verb to express
possibility or a complex temporal action
 Types
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Action verbs convey a physical or mental action
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e.g., talk, swim, think, argue, hope, propose
Linking verbs connect the subject and predicate
(subject complement)
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of verbs
e.g., is, are, was, were, become, feel, appear, seem
Helping (auxiliary) verbs combine with main
verbs to express conditions and complex tenses
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e.g., should talk, is swimming, will think
THE PARTS OF SPEECH AND
THEIR FUNCTIONS, CONT’D
 Adjectives
and adverbs modify other
parts of speech
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Adjectives modify nouns or pronouns
Adverbs modify verbs, adjectives, adverbs, and
complete sentences
 Prepositions
join nouns/pronouns to the
sentence, helping them modify another
part of speech
THE PARTS OF SPEECH AND
THEIR FUNCTIONS, CONT’D
 Conjunctions
have various joining
functions
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Coordinating conjunctions join equal
grammatical units, such as independent
clauses
Subordinating conjunctions join dependent to
independent clauses
Adverbial conjunctions are adverbs used to
connect independent clauses
Correlative conjunctions join in pairs
SENTENCES
A
sentence expresses a completed thought
 Contains
a group of grammatically linked
words with subject and predicate and
needing nothing else to complete it
Simple subject consists of noun/pronoun
 Complete subject consists of noun/pronoun +
modifiers
 Simple predicate consists of verb that tells us
about subject
 Complete predicate consists of verb + modifiers,
objects
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SENTENCES, CONT’D
 Imperative

sentence issues order or demand
May consist only of verb with subject “you”
implied
A
phrase is a grammatically linked group of
words lacking a subject and predicate
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A prepositional phrase is introduced by a
preposition and modifies a noun/pronoun or verb
A participle phrase modifies a noun
A gerund phrase acts as a noun
An infinitive phrase can act as a noun or modify
a noun or verb
SENTENCES, CONT’D
A
clause is a group of words that includes
a subject and a predicate
An independent clause can stand on own as it
expresses a complete thought
 A dependent clause begins with subordinating
conjunction and does not express a complete
thought
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SENTENCES, CONT’D
 Sentence
fragments are incomplete
sentences
 Type

1: lacks a subject, predicate, or both
To fix: add missing part(s)
 Type
2: dependent clause fragment lacks
complete thought/ idea
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To fix: add independent clause
SENTENCES, CONT’D
 Errors
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A run-on sentence consists of two independent
clauses with no punctuation in between
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of joining
To fix: add a period between clauses or other
appropriate punctuation such as a comma + a
coordinating conjunction
A comma splice consists of two independent
clauses joined only by comma

To fix: add a period between clauses or other
appropriate punctuation such as a comma + a
coordinating conjunction