Subject - brookblaylock

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Transcript Subject - brookblaylock

Agreement
Subject/Verb and Verb Tense
Review: Parts of a Sentence
• Subject + Predicate = Sentence
• What is a subject?
• What is a predicate?
• What is the difference between simple and
complex?
Review: Verb tenses
• Infinitive• Past• Present• Future-
Using Subject-Verb Agreement
What is subject-verb agreement?
How to fix problems in agreement
Phrases between subjects and verbs
Indefinite pronouns
Compound subjects
Subjects after verbs
Don’t and doesn’t
Review A
Review B
What is subject-verb agreement?
Every sentence has a subject and a verb.
Subject Verb
The dog
dog runs.
runs.
runs.
Subject Verb
sails.
A ship
ship sails.
sails.
Subject
Verb
Two children
childrenplay
play
playmusic.
music.
music.
What is subject-verb agreement?
Number
Number is the form a word takes to show
whether it is singular or plural.
• A word that refers to one thing is singular.
• A word that refers to more than one is plural.
Singular
Plural
scientists
scientist
goose
geese
they
she
What is subject-verb agreement?
Singular subjects
A verb should agree in number with its subject.
• Singular subjects take singular verbs.
Singular Singular
Verb
Subject
Tabitha
Tabitha rides
ridesthe
the
thetrain.
train.
train.
rides
Singular Singular
Subject
Verb
He repairs
thebicycle.
bicycle.
He
repairs the
What is subject-verb agreement?
Plural subjects
• Plural subjects take plural verbs.
Plural Plural
Subject Verb
The
ride the
the
train.
The girls
ride
thetrain.
girls ride
Plural
Subject
Plural
Verb
They
repair
thebicycle.
bicycle.
They repair
repair the
the
bicycle.
What is subject-verb agreement?
Plural subjects
In a verb phrase the first helping verb agrees
with the subject.
Singular
Singular
Verb
Phrase
Helping
Verb
Subject
is repairing the bicycle.
He is
Plural Plural
HelpingVerb
VerbPhrase
Subject
are repairing
repairing the bicycle.
They
They are
What is subject-verb agreement?
On Your Own
For each sentence, identify the subject, and then choose the
verb in parentheses that agrees with the subject.
1. The water (rushes, rush) down the river.
2. The bees (buzzes, buzz) around the picnic table.
3. The photograph (was, were) a gift from my cousin.
4. At the science fair the winner always (receives, receive) a
savings bond.
5. They (march, marches) in all the parades.
[End of Section]
How to fix problems in agreement
Phrases between subjects and verbs
Sometimes a phrase comes between the subject
and the verb.
Subject Verb
Phrase
Verb
of Coyote.
those folk tales is Coyote.
The hero is
The number of the subject is usually not changed
by a phrase following the subject.
Subject
Verb
The hero of those folk tales is Coyote.
How to fix problems in agreement
Phrases between subjects and verbs
Subject
Verb
bag of
on the
the shelf.
shelf.
A bag
of marbles
marbles isis on
Is agrees with bag, not marbles.
Subject
Verb
The peppers
inthe
the garden
garden have
grownquickly.
quickly.
peppers in
have grown
The helping verb have agrees
with peppers, not garden.
How to fix problems in agreement
Phrases between subjects and verbs
On Your Own
For each of the following sentences, choose the correct form
of the verb in parentheses.
1. A tidal wave, despite its name, (is, are) not caused by the
tides.
2. Earthquakes beneath the sea (causes, cause) most tidal
waves.
3. Tidal waves in the open ocean generally (does, do) not
cause much interest.
4. The height of tidal waves there often (remains, remain)
low.
[End of Section]
How to fix problems in agreement
Indefinite pronouns
Indefinite pronouns refer to a person or thing
whose exact identity is unknown.
• Some indefinite pronouns are singular.
• Some are plural.
• Some may be either singular or plural,
depending on how they are used.
How to fix problems in agreement
Indefinite pronouns
The following indefinite pronouns are singular:
Singular indefinite pronouns
anybody
either
neither
one
anyone
everybody
nobody
somebody
anything
everyone
no one
someone
each
everything
nothing
something
Subject
Subject
Verb
Verb
Verb
Neither
of on
the
boys
is sale
in
my
Nothing
ever
goes
on
at class.
thiswell.
store.
Everyone
the
team
dribbles
How to fix problems in agreement
Indefinite pronouns
The following indefinite pronouns are plural:
Plural indefinite pronouns
both
few
Subject
many
Verb
Both of them wear glasses.
Subject
Verb
Few have traveled there.
Verb Subject
Are many of the tools sharp?
several
How to fix problems in agreement
Indefinite pronouns
The following indefinite pronouns may be singular
or plural, depending on how they are used:
Singular or plural indefinite pronouns
Subject
all
more
none
any
most
some
Verb
Most of the ice has melted.
Subject
Singular when they refer
to singular words
Verb
Most of the ice cubes have melted.
Plural when they
refer to plural words
How to fix problems in agreement
Indefinite pronouns
On Your Own
For each of the following sentences, choose the correct form
of the verb in parentheses.
1. Most of the balloons (has, have) long strings.
2. Both of these shoes (gives, give) me blisters.
3. Someone on the soccer team (needs, need) a new
uniform.
4. Neither of the boys (was, were) wearing a helmet.
5. None of the house (has, have) been painted yet.
[End of Section]
How to fix problems in agreement
Compound subjects
A compound subject is two or more subjects
that are joined by a coordinating conjunction and
that have the same verb.
• Subjects joined by and usually take plural verbs.
Red
and
Subject 1
Jana,
blue
are the school’s colors.
Subject 2 Verb
Kurt,
Subject 1 Subject 2
and
Riley
Subject 3
enjoy skating.
Verb
How to fix problems in agreement
Coordinating conjunctions
Coordinating Conjunctions
and
but
or
for
yet
so
nor
A coordinating conjunction joins words or groups
of words that are used in the same way.
How to fix problems in agreement
Compound subjects
• Singular subjects joined by or or nor take a
singular verb.
Neither the bus
nor the
Singular
On Mondays, Manuel or
Singular
train stops in our town.
Singular Verb
Gina
baby-sits.
Singular
Verb
How to fix problems in agreement
Compound subjects
• Plural subjects joined by or or nor take a plural
verb.
Curtains
or artworks add color to a room.
Plural
Plural
Neither lemons nor
Plural
Verb
limes were sold there.
Plural
Verb
How to fix problems in agreement
Compound subjects
• When a singular and a plural subject are joined
by or or nor, the verb agrees with the subject
that is closer to the verb.
Plural
Singular
Verb
Either flowers or a book usually makes a nice gift.
The verb makes agrees with the nearer subject, book.
Singular
Maria or her
Plural
Verb
parents prepare the lunches.
The verb prepare agrees with the nearer subject, parents.
How to fix problems in agreement
Compound subjects
On Your Own
For each of the following sentences, choose the verb that
agrees with the compound subject.
1. Ants and spiders (has, have) invaded the backyard.
2. Mandy and her friends (is, are) going to the movies.
3. A statue or a fountain (looks, look) good in a park setting.
4. Neither maples nor elms (grows, grow) well in the valley.
5. Either potatoes or rice (is, are) served with the chicken.
[End of Section]
How to fix problems in agreement
Subjects after verbs
In some sentences the subject comes after the
verb.
Plural Subject
Here (is,are
are) the
the balloons.
balloons.
When the subject follows the verb . . .
1. Find the subject.
2. Make sure the verb agrees with it.
How to fix problems in agreement
Subjects after verbs
Subjects also appear after verbs in questions.
Plural Subject
Where (is,
are
are) the old magazines?
magazines?
1. Find the subject.
2. Make sure the verb agrees with it.
How to fix problems in agreement
Subjects after verbs
On Your Own
For each of the following sentences, choose the correct form
of the verb in parentheses.
1. There (is, are) a new student in my brother’s class.
2. (Was, Were) the fans cheering for the other team?
3. Where (has, have) Reggie hidden the gifts?
4. Here (stands, stand) the bravest heroes among us.
5. There (is, are) several correct answers to that question.
[End of Section]
How to fix agreement problems
Don’t and doesn’t
The contractions don’t and doesn’t should agree
with their subjects.
Don’t is the contraction of do not. Use it with I and
you and with all plural subjects.
Singular
Plural
I
don’t
we
don’t
you
don’t
you
don’t
they
don’t
Don’t
You
I don’t
don’t
the puppies
want
know that
the
look
rules
coat.
cute?
yet.
How to fix agreement problems
Don’t and doesn’t
Doesn’t is the contraction of does not. Use it with
all singular subjects except I and you.
Singular
I
don’t
you
don’t
he/she/it
doesn’t
The
Doesn’t
car He
doesn’t
she
doesn’t
bowlrun
on
know
well
a teen
you.
in the
league?
winter.
How to fix agreement problems
Don’t and doesn’t
On Your Own
For each of the following sentences, choose the correct
contraction in parentheses.
1. I (don’t, doesn’t) have any math homework tonight.
2. (Don’t, doesn’t) you usually study with Julia?
3. That show (don’t, doesn’t) come on until 9:00.
4. My grandparents (don’t, doesn’t) live near us.
5. (Don’t, Doesn’t) Jerome play the guitar anymore?
[End of Section]
Review A
Choose the verb form in parentheses that agrees with the
subject.
1. Everyone in her family (prefers, prefer) to drink water.
2. Jamal and his parents (enjoys, enjoy) musicals.
3. There (is, are) three baby birds in the nest.
4. Neither the mower nor the weed-eater (works, work)
well.
5. Industries in the state (includes, include) farming and
mining.
Review B
For each of the following sentences, if the subject and verb
do not agree, write the correct form of the verb. If the verb
already agrees with the subject, write C.
1. This table and this chair were made by hand in Mexico.
2. Each of my brothers go to college out of state.
3. Mr. Chang and his class has painted a mural for the hall.
4. A tornado or a hurricane is a dangerous storm.
5. Here is the decorations for the dance.
[End of Section]
Verb Tense Agreement
• To understand agreement, you must
understand tenses…
– There are 9 main verb tenses. We will
focus on 6.
• Past, Present, and Future all have 3 forms.
– Simple
– Conditional
– Perfect
Understanding Verb Tense
What are verb tenses?
Present and present perfect
Past and past perfect
Future and future perfect
Consistency of tense
Review A
Review B
What are verb tenses?
Why do verbs have so many different forms?
Verbs take different forms to show all the
possibilities for when something can happen.
She will draw.
She draws.
She has drawn.
What are verb tenses?
The tense of a verb indicates the time of the
action or state of being expressed by the verb.
Each tense has its own use.
Present Paul lives in Boston.
Present perfect
Past
He has lived in several cities.
Paul once lived in Utah.
Past perfect
He had lived in Georgia before that.
Future Paul will live in Boston for a long time.
Future perfect He will have lived there four years.
What are verb tenses?
Present and present perfect
The present tense expresses a general truth, an
action that occurs regularly, or a state of being
that exists at the present time.
Mom drinks orange juice.
Present
Present
What are verb tenses?
Present and present perfect
The present perfect tense
• expresses an action that occurred or a state of
being that existed at an indefinite time in the past
• is usually formed with have or has plus the
past participle
Saul has drunk his juice already.
We don’t know when Saul drank it.
Present
Present
- - - ->
Present perfect
What are verb tenses?
Past and past perfect
The past tense expresses an action or a state of
being that started and ended in the past.
The scouts hiked all morning.
Past
Past
Present
Present
- - - ->
Present Perfect
What are verb tenses?
Past and past perfect
The past perfect tense
• expresses an action or a state of being that ended
before another past action or state of being
• is usually formed with had plus the past participle
The scouts had hiked five miles before they
stopped for lunch.
Past
Past
- - - ->
Past Perfect
Present
Present
- - - ->
Present Perfect
What are verb tenses?
Future and future perfect
The future tense
• expresses an action that will occur or a state of being
that will exist
• is usually formed with will or shall plus the base form
The class will tour the Indian ruins.
Present
Present
- - - ->
Present Perfect
Future
Future
What are verb tenses?
Future and future perfect
The future perfect tense
• expresses an action or a state of being that will end
before another future action or state of being
• is usually formed with will have or shall have plus the
past participle
By the end of the trip, the class will have toured
three ruins.
Present
Present
- - - ->
Present Perfect
Future
Future
- - - ->
Future Perfect
What are verb tenses?
On Your Own
Change the tense of the boldface verb in each sentence to
the tense in parentheses.
1. Miguel makes the photo larger. (Change to past.)
2. The picnic took place on Sunday. (Change to future.)
3. The boys ran three miles in one hour. (Change to past
perfect.)
4. By then, Aunt Nell had arrived. (Change to future
perfect.)
5. Cynthia had played the violin beautifully. (Change to
present.)
[End of Section]
Consistency of tense
Do not change from one tense to another without
a good reason.
To describe events that occur in the same time
period, use verbs in the same tense.
past tense
past tense
When we went to the movies, we bought popcorn.
present tense
present tense
When we go to the movies, we buy popcorn.
Consistency of tense
For events that occur in different time periods,
use verbs of different tenses to show the order of
events.
present tense
past tense
Lisa plays basketball now, but last year she was
on the volleyball team.
Lisa’s basketball
playing is occurring in
the present. Her
volleyball playing
happened in the past.
Consistency of tense
On Your Own
Rewrite the paragraph in the past tense. Change verb forms
to make the tenses consistent.
(1) Lightning struck our house, and I run straight for
cover. (2) “Oh, no!” I exclaim. (3) The electricity was out! (4)
My parents get out the flashlights, and we played a game.
(5) The stove and microwave do not work, so we have a cold
supper in the living room. (6) In the morning,
we are all happy. (7) The sun shone and our electricity is
back on.
[End of Section]
Review A
Change the tense of each boldface verb to the tense
given in parentheses.
1. The children wear their seatbelts. (past perfect)
2. The bell in the clock tower rang. (present)
3. My family will move to Seattle. (present perfect)
4. With confidence, Sara begins the quiz. (past)
5. We sent the packages by airmail. (future)
Review B
Rewrite the paragraph in the past tense. Change verb
forms to make the tenses consistent.
(1) I travel to Denver and visited my grandparents.
(2) Grandpa gave me a big hug when I get off the
train. (3) Then we all go to their house for dinner. (4)
The very next morning Grandma takes me downtown
and we shopped for books and shoes. (5) Then she and
I meet up with Grandpa and went to the museum.
[End of Section]
The End
Pronoun-Antecedent Agreement
Definitions
• What is a pronoun?
• What is an antecedent?
Using Pronoun-Antecedent Agreement
What is pronoun-antecedent agreement?
How to fix problems in agreement
Indefinite pronouns
Antecedents joined by or or nor
Antecedents joined by and
Review A
Review B
What is pronoun-antecedent agreement?
You may have heard that it is rude to point, but
that’s exactly what pronouns do.
A pronoun “points” to a noun
or another pronoun called its
antecedent.
Antecedent
Pronoun
Does that plant
it?
planthave
havemold
moldon
onit?
it?
What is pronoun-antecedent agreement?
Number
A pronoun should agree in both number and
gender with its antecedent.
A word that refers to one thing is singular.
A word that refers to more than one is plural.
Singular
Plural
kittens
kitten
girls
girl
they
it
What is pronoun-antecedent agreement?
Number
Use singular pronouns to refer to singular
antecedents.
Singular personal pronouns
I
me
my, mine
you
you
your, yours
he, she, it
him, her, it
his, hers, its
Singular
antecedent
Singular
pronoun
Peel the onion
it.
onionbefore
beforeyou
youchop
chopit.
it.
What is pronoun-antecedent agreement?
Number
Use plural pronouns to refer to plural antecedents.
Plural personal pronouns
we
us
our, ours
you
you
your, yours
they
them
their, theirs
Plural
antecedent
Plural
pronoun
Wash
andthen
thenslice
slicethem.
them.
Wash the
the apples
apples and
them.
What is pronoun-antecedent agreement?
Gender
Some singular pronouns indicate gender.
• Masculine pronouns refer to males.
• Feminine pronouns refer to females.
• Neuter pronouns refer to places, things, ideas,
and animals.
Masculine
Feminine
Neuter
he
she
it
him
her
it
his
her, hers
its
himself
herself
itself
What is pronoun-antecedent agreement?
Gender
Make sure a singular pronoun agrees with its
antecedent in gender.
Masculine
antecedent
Masculine
pronoun
Feminine
Roberto
hasstudied,
studied,
sohe
heis
ready.
Roberto
so
he
isisready.
ready.
Feminine has
antecedent
pronoun
Carla
usually carries
carries her
herown
ownbooks.
books.
Carla usually
her
own
books.
Neuter
antecedent
Neuter
pronoun
The
canary
issitting
sittingon
onits
itsperch.
perch.
The canary
canary is
is
sitting
on
its
What is pronoun-antecedent agreement?
On Your Own
Complete each sentence by providing a pronoun that agrees
with its antecedent. Then, identify the antecedent.
1. Ants sometimes make __________ home in your yard.
2. That plant needs water, or __________ will die.
3. Jerry lent __________ bike to Paul.
4. The captains of the teams accepted __________ awards.
5. My sister is smart, and __________ is also funny.
[End of Section]
How to fix problems in agreement
Indefinite pronouns
Indefinite pronouns refer to a person or thing
whose exact identity is unknown.
• Some indefinite pronouns are singular.
• Some are plural.
• Some may be either singular or plural,
depending on how they are used.
How to fix problems in agreement
Indefinite pronouns
The following indefinite pronouns are singular:
Singular indefinite pronouns
anybody
either
neither
one
anyone
everybody
nobody
somebody
anything
everyone
no one
someone
each
everything
nothing
something
Someone
oncars
the
forgot
his
backpack.
Each
One
of of
the
the
ladies
isboys’
missing
leftteam
herone
notebook
of its
hubcaps.
here.
How to fix problems in agreement
Indefinite pronouns
When you do not know the gender of the subject,
or when the subject includes both males and
females, you can use both the masculine and
feminine pronouns connected by or.
No one offered his or her help.
Everybody in the play studied
his or her lines.
How to fix problems in agreement
Indefinite pronouns
The following indefinite pronouns are plural:
Plural indefinite pronouns
both
few
many
several
Both of the soldiers respect their captain.
Few of the dogs obeyed their owners.
If several are ready, serve them.
How to fix problems in agreement
Indefinite pronouns
The following indefinite pronouns may be singular
or plural, depending on how they are used:
Singular or plural indefinite pronouns
all
more
none
any
most
some
Singular
Some of the music is good. Will you play it again?
Some refers to the singular word music. The singular pronoun
Plural
it agrees with the singular antecedent some.
Some of the songs are new. Have you heard them?
Some refers to the plural word songs. The plural pronoun them
agrees with the plural antecedent some.
How to fix problems in agreement
Indefinite pronouns
On Your Own
Most of the following sentences contain pronouns that do not
agree with their antecedents. If a pronoun does not agree
with its antecedent, provide the correct pronoun. If a
sentence is already correct, label it C.
1. Several of the babies had special blankets with it.
2. I’ve read most of the book, and I have enjoyed it.
3. Only one of the girls had finished their homework.
4. Most of the players accepted his awards in person.
5. Someone left their backpack on the bus.
[End of Section]
How to fix problems in agreement
Antecedents joined by or or nor
Use a singular pronoun to refer to two or more
singular antecedents joined by or or nor.
Ralph
or
Singular
Carlos will display his paintings.
Singular
Singular
Neither
Elia
Singular
nor
Mary
brought her jacket.
How to fix problems in agreement
Antecedents joined by and
Use a plural pronoun to refer to two or more
antecedents joined by and.
Tyrone and James are artists. They draw well.
Antecedent 1
Both
Max
Antecedent 2
and
Antecedent 1
Helen
delivered their speeches.
Antecedent 2
How to fix problems in agreement
On Your Own
Most of the following sentences contain pronouns that do not
agree with their antecedents. If a pronoun does not agree
with its antecedent, provide the correct pronoun. If a
sentence is already correct, label it C.
1. Both Rick and Ned were pleased with their test results.
2. Can even a princess or a queen have their every wish?
3. If you get a red rose or a lily, it will look nice here.
4. My brother and my sister lent me her favorite videos.
5. Two cars and one truck had its lights on.
[End of Section]
Review A
Complete the following sentences by providing pronouns that
agree with their antecedents.
1. Frances or Donna will sing __________ favorite song.
2. Each of the mice has white markings on __________
back.
3. No one in the band forgot __________ sheet music.
4. Some of the customers complained that __________ food
was cold.
5. When my aunt and uncle come to visit, I am going to
show __________ the skate park.
Review B
Most of the following sentences contain errors in pronounantecedent agreement. Identify each error, and give the
form of the pronoun that agrees with its antecedent. If a
sentence is correct, label it C.
1. Somebody left the engine running in their car.
2. Several of the kittens are sick, but the veterinarian can
help him or her.
3. Will either Hector or Kevin read his paper aloud?
4. Neither of the robins has their winter plumage.
5. Ted and his brother must have left. I don’t see him
anywhere.
[End of Section]
The End