Transcript Using Adjectives and Adverbs
Using Adjectives and Adverbs Correctly What are adjectives? Adjectives modify nouns or pronouns These words are all adjectives A hot day A happy camper A silly twit A big, smelly mess (both “big” and “smelly” modify “mess”) She is creative (“creative” is a subject complement that follows the linking verb “is”) A boring course (present participle used as an adjective) Draw the umbrella & take notes: Adjective – a word that describes a noun or pronoun. Adjectives are modifiers. They change, or modify, the meaning of nouns or pronouns. Answers These Questions • What kind? • Which ones? • How many? • How much? Demonstrative • this Articles • that •a • these • an • those • the So what are adverbs? Adverbs modify verbs, adjectives and other adverbs Many adverbs end with ly Many adverbs answer the question “How?” These are adverbs Eating quickly (modifying a verb) Trying very hard (modifying an adverb) A really big show (modifying an adjective) Draw the umbrella & take notes: CLUE! Most end with ly W.H.E.W. Adverb – a word that modifies a verb, adjective, or another adverb. Adverbs are modifiers. They change, or modify, the meaning of another word. • Where? • How? • To what Extent? when modifying adj. and other adv. • When? W.H.E.W. (Wipe your forehead. This is hard work!) Where? I put the money there. How? The diamond was really small. To What Extent? She hardly slept. When? I made cookies yesterday. Recognizing Adjectives & Adverbs Many words have both an adjective and adverb form Adjective Adverb Happy kids Playing happily Smooth jazz Running smoothly Good night Eating Well Efficient workers Working efficiently Casual dress Dressing casually Quick meeting Talking quickly Hopeful children Waiting hopefully Real butter Really hot Comparatives and Superlatives Most adverbs and adjectives also have a comparative and superlative form Simple Comparative Superlative Hot Hotter Hottest Good Better Best Exciting More exciting Most exciting Careful Less careful Least careful Use the comparative form to compare two things Sally is the larger of the twins. (not largest) Use the superlative form to compare three or more August was the hottest month of the year. Double Comparatives Don’t use “more” or “most” with –er or –est Yesterday was more hotter than today. That was the most dirtiest story I ever heard. You are the bestest teacher. Absolute Concepts Don’t use comparatives or superlatives with absolute concepts Absolutes have only two possibilities, on or off, yes or no, with nothing in between The most perfect student in the class A very unique idea (say “very unusual” instead) These words express absolute concepts that cannot be modified More priceless Sort of dead Quite on A little bit confident Very unanimous Extremely perfect Quite unique Completely anonymous Don’t use adjectives when adverbs are needed You did a real nice job. (an adjective can’t modify another adjective) You did a really nice job. (the adverb “really” modifies “nice”) He did good. He did well. or He did a good job. Fuel injection helps the car run efficient. Fuel injection helps the car run efficiently. Come quick! Come quickly! Hopefully, it won’t rain. (an adverb explains how something will happen I hope that it won’t rain. Compound Adjectives Two or more adjectives often appear together separated with commas Brad’s shiny, brown toupe flapped in the wind. • The words “shiny” and “brown” each work separately to modify “toupe” • Connect the words with a hyphen when they function together before a noun Brad’s gold-plated fillings stood out against his bright-red sunburn. • “Gold-plated” and “bright-red” are compound adjectives Compound Adjectives Do not hyphenate the words when they come after the noun they modify Notice the difference in these examples Brad was well known along the boardwalk. (no hyphen) Brad was a well-known jerk. (hyphenated) His SUV was fully equipped. He drove a fully-equipped SUV. Brad worked full time on his tan. Brad was a full-time chick magnet. Misplaced Modifiers Put adjectives and adverbs close to the words they modify Notice how the meaning is affected by the improper placement An old pile of clothes is on the floor. A pile of old clothes is on the floor. I almost believe you are finished. I believe you are almost finished. The winners will only be contacted. Only the winners will be contacted. I can’t quite do this as well as Fred. I can’t do this quite as well as Fred.