French Verb

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Transcript French Verb

PAST
Passé Composé
TENSE
The Passé Composé is constructed with an auxiliary verb
and the past participle of the verb
AUX
P. P.
Auxiliary verb + past participle
AVOIR
ÊTRE
To have
To be
Both conjugated in the present tense
Group I verbs
( verbs that end in ER )
Example : donner
1st step: remove ER from the verb
example: donn
2nd step: add é
example: donné
100% of the past participles of this group end in é
French Verb
* donner
parler
P. P. ( F )
English Verb
* to give
to speak
P. P. ( E )
* donné
parlé
* given
spoken
Group II verbs
( verbs that end in IR )
1st step: remove R
Example : fini
FRENCH VERB
ENGLISH VERB
P. P. ( F )
finir
to finish
fini
partir
to leave
parti
P. P. ( E )
finished
left
vu
EXAMPLE seen
voir
to see
( past participle)
* Not all group 2 verbs end in I .
Some group 2 P. P. end in U.
Group III Verbs that end in RE
Example : vendre (To sell)
1st step : remove RE
Example : vend
2nd step : add U
Example : vendu
French verb
English verb
vendre
pendre
to sell
P. P. ( F )
vendu
pendu
To hang
P. P. ( E )
sold
hanged
* Not all group 3 verbs end in U.
Some Group 3 P. P. end in I.
Most verbs take : “to have” as auxiliary
example: to give = donner
past participle = donné (given)
Auxiliary + Past Participle
J’ai donné
tu as donné
il elle a donné
nous avons donné
vous avez donné
ils, elles ont donné
example: tu as donné le gateau à Christine ?
Did you give the cake to Christine?
IRREGULAR PAST PARTICIPLES
Examples :
French verb
devoir
voir
mettre
écrire
English verb
P. P. ( F )
P. P. ( E )
to have to du
had to
to know
su
known
to put on mis put on
to write
écrit written
* When past tense is in the negative form :
Subject + ne + auxiliary + pas + past participle
EXAMPLE :
Elle a mis son eau de cologne ?
non, elle n’ a pas mis son eau
de cologne.
RULE OF AGREEMENT
“to have” as auxiliary
The P. P. agrees in gender and number
with the DIRECT OBJECT
placed
before the verb.
Guidelines
If the direct object is feminine and singular,
add E to the past participle
Example : I saw her
Je l’ai vue
If the direct object is feminine and plural,
add ES to the past participle
Example : the dresses? She put them on the bed.
Les robes ? Elle les a mises sur le lit.
If the direct object is masculine and plural,
add S to the past participle
Example : I saw them.
Je les ai vus.
Some verbs take “to be” as auxiliary
to be = être
example: aller = to go
être + past participle
allé
gone
je suis allé nous sommes allés
tu es allé
vous etes allés
il est allé
ils sont allés
elle est allée
elles sont allées
16 verbs take “ to be “ as auxiliary, these are mostly verbs of motion
French verb
Aller
entrer
rentrer
rester
tomber
arriver
retourner
monter
partir
sortir
venir
revenir
devenir
mourir
descendre
naître
English verb
To go
to enter
to go home/to reenter
to stay
to fall
to arrive
to return
to go up
to leave
to go out
to come
to come back
to become
to die
to go down
to be born
P.P. (F)
P.P. (E)
allé
entré
rentré
resté
tombé
arrivé
retourné
monté
parti
sorti
venu
revenu
devenu
mort
descendu
né
Gone
entered
gone home
stayed
fallen
arrived
returned
gone up
left
gone out
come
come back
become
died
gone down
born
Verbs that are not listed under
“ to be” take “to have” as auxiliary
Rule of agreement
of the Past Participle
with “to be” as auxiliary
The Past Participle agrees in gender
and number with the SUBJECT
If the subject is masculine / plural, add S to the past participle
Example : They stayed at home, Saturday night.
Ils sont restés à la maison samedi soir.
If the subject is feminine / singular, add E to the past participle.
Example : She went out with Ricky Martin.
Elle est sortie avec Ricky Martin
If the subject is feminine / plural, add ES to the past participle
Example : Chippy and Catherine went to Boracay
Chippy and Catherine sont allées à Boracay.