Nutrients Power Point

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Transcript Nutrients Power Point

BELL-RINGER
5/6/2013
Explain the difference
between carbohydrates, fats,
and proteins.
NUTRITION
ESSENTIAL NUTRIENTS
NUTRITION DEFINED
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Nutrition is the relationship between health
and the well-being of a person and the food
he/she consumes.
Undernutrion- Is a general lack of calories
and or nutrients.
Overnutrition- Is a group of nutrient-excess
diseases in which calories and/or nutrients
are overabundant in the diet.
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Ex.-heart disease, diabetes, hypertension, obesity
Diet Related Health Problems
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SHORT TERM
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Fatigue
Depression
Bad moods
LONG TERM
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Obesity
Heart disease
Stroke
Diabetes
High Blood Pressure
Some forms of Cancer
Obesity
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Obesity - A medical condition in which excess
body fat has accumulated to the extent that it
may have an adverse effect on health
300,000 deaths each year in the United
States are associated with obesity
The economic cost of obesity in the United
States is about $117 billion / year.
Causes and Consequences of Obesity
Causes
Sedentary Lifestyle
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Consequences
Heart Disease
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Hypertension
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Type II Diabetes
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Some forms of cancer
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Consumption of prepackaged and fast
foods
Intake is more then the
output
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Combating Obesity
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Eating Healthier
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Increasing Activity Levels
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Cutting out fast foods/junk foods
Output is greater then intake
Play 60
The Break Down of
Food
CARBOHYDRATES
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Starches and sugars present in foods. They are
the body’s preferred source of energy, providing 4
calories per gram.
Made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.
Classified as either simple or complex.
Should make up 55-60% of your daily calories,
mainly as complex carbs.
SIMPLE AND COMPLEX CARBS
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SIMPLE CARBS
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Sugars such as fructose and lactose (end in –
ose).
Examples: Manufactured foods like cookies,
cakes.
COMPLEX CARBS
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Also called starches and are found in whole
grains, seeds, nuts, legumes, and tubers
(potatoes).
Body must break down complex carbs into simple
carbs before they can be used for energy.
ROLE OF CARBOHYDRATES
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Body converts all carbs to glucose, a simple
sugar that is the body’s main source of
energy.
Glucose is stored as glycogen in the liver and
muscles.
When more energy is needed the body
converts glycogen back to glucose.
Excess amounts of carbs are converted and
stored as body fat.
FIBER
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Fiber is an indigestible complex carbohydrate found
in vegetables, fruits, and whole grains (bran,
cereals, oatmeal, brown rice, and beans).
Although it can’t be digested and used as energy,
fiber helps move waste through the digestive
system.
Fiber helps to prevent intestinal problems, such as
constipation.
Eating fiber may reduce risk of heart disease.
Eat 20-30 grams of fiber each day.
PROTEINS
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Nutrients that help build and maintain body
cells and tissues.
Proteins are made of long chains of
substances called amino acids.
Your body can manufacture all but 9 of the 20
different amino acids that make up proteins.
The 9 that your body can’t make up are
called essential amino acids– you must get
them from the foods you eat.
COMPLETE AND INCOMPLETE
PROTEINS
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Complete Proteins
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Contain adequate amounts of all 9 essential
amino acids
Good sources of protein include animal products
such as fish, meat, poultry, eggs, milk, cheese,
yogurt, and many soybean products.
Incomplete Proteins
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They lack one or more of the essential amino
acids.
Sources include beans, peas, nuts, and whole
grains.
ROLE OF PROTEINS
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Proteins have many functions:
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The body builds new cells and tissues from the amino acids
of proteins (mainly during growth periods).
Your body replaces damaged or worn-out cells by making
new ones from proteins.
Your body uses proteins to make enzymes, hormones, and
antibodies.
Proteins supply the body with energy, although, they are
not the body’s main source.
Like carbohydrates, proteins provide 4 calories per gram,
and excess protein is converted to body fat.
FATS
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Some fat in the diet is necessary for good health.
Fats are a type of lipid, a fatty substance that does
not dissolve in water.
Fats provide more than twice the energy of carbs
and proteins at 9 calories per gram.
The building blocks of fats are called fatty acids,
molecules made mostly of long chains of carbon
atoms, with pairs of hydrogen and oxygen attached.
Fatty acids that the body needs, but cannot
produce, are called essential fatty acids.
Fatty acids are classified as saturated or
unsaturated.
SATURATED AND UNSATURATED
FATS
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Saturated Fats
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Animal fats and tropical oils (palm oil, palm kernel
oil, and coconut oil) have a high proportion of
saturated fatty acids.
A high intake of saturated fats is associated with
an increased risk of heart disease.
Solid at room temperature, which can clog
arteries.
www.strokeassociation.org/presenter.jhtml?identifi
er=1014
SATURATED AND UNSATURATED
FATS
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Unsaturated Fats
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Unlike saturated fats, unsaturated fats have been
associated with a reduced risk of heart disease.
Liquid at room temperature and of the vegetable
origin. Examples include corn oil, sunflower oil,
olive oil, etc.
The Role of Fats
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They transport vitamins A, D, E, and K in your blood
and serve as linoleic acid, an essential fatty acid
that is needed for growth and healthy skin.
Fats add flavor and texture to food
Provides a concentrated form of energy. Because
they take longer to digest than carbs and proteins,
they help satisfy hunger longer than other nutrients
do.
Acts as a protective cushion for the organs, as well
as acting as insulation and temperature control.
Foods that are high in fats tend to be high in
calories, which increase the risk of unhealthful
weight gain and obesity.
The Role of Cholesterol
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Cholesterol is a waxy fat-like substance
that circulates in blood and is found only
in animal foods.
Your body uses the small amount it
manufactures to make cell membranes
and nerve tissue and to produce many
hormones, vitamin D, and bile, which
helps digest fats.
Excess blood cholesterol is deposited in
arteries, including arteries of the heart.
This increases the risk of heart disease.
Cholesterol Continued
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High cholesterol may be hereditary, and
cholesterol levels tend to rise as people age.
Although heredity and age are out of your
control, you can significantly reduce your risk
of heart disease by eating a diet low in
saturated fats and cholesterol.
A high intake of saturated fats is linked to
increased cholesterol production.
Types of Cholesterol
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HDL- “Good” cholesterol
 Tightly packed so it moves through the
digestive system and is eliminated.
 It also picks up fat so it helps protect
against heart disease.
LDL- “Bad” Cholesterol
 Loosely packed so some of it gets left
behind in the arteries. It restricts blood
flow which can lead to atherosclerosis.
Try to:
Decrease saturated fat
 Exercise to “clean” arteries
 Eat fiber to get rid of LDL
cholesterol.
 Get cholesterol levels checked
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