Windows 7 - Sabbir Saleh

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Transcript Windows 7 - Sabbir Saleh

Chapter 5: Operating Systems
Sabbir M Saleh
Chapter 5 Objectives
• 5.1 Explain the characteristics and basic functions of modern
operating systems
• 5.1 Describe and compare types of operating systems to include
purpose, limitations, and compatibilities
• 5.1 Determine operating system based on customer needs
• 5.2 Install an operating system
• 5.3 Navigate a GUI (Windows)
• 5.4 Explain the advantages of Virtualization and install Virtual PC
Chapter 5 Objectives (continued)
• 5.5 Identify and apply common preventive maintenance techniques
for operating systems
• 5.6 Troubleshoot operating systems
The Purpose of an Operating System
• The operating system (OS) controls almost all functions on a
computer.
• In this chapter, you will learn about the components, functions, and
terminology related to the Windows 7, Windows Vista , and
Windows XP operating systems.
Characteristics of an Operating System
• Multi-user – Two or more users have individual accounts that allow
them to work with programs and peripheral devices at the same time.
• Multitasking – The computer is capable of operating multiple
applications at the same time.
• Multiprocessing – The operating system can support two or more CPUs.
• Multithreading – A program can be broken into smaller parts that are
loaded as needed by the operating system. Multithreading allows
individual programs to be multitasked.
Basic Function of an Operating System
• All computers rely on an operating system (OS) to provide the
interface for interaction between users, applications, and hardware.
• The operating system boots the computer and manages the file
system.
• The operating system has four main roles:
• Control hardware access
• Manage files and folders
• Provide user interface
• Manage applications
Processor Architecture
• 32-bit Windows Operating System and x86 Processor Architecture
• Capable of addressing 4 GB of RAM
• x86 uses a Complex Instruction Set Computer (CISC)
• x86 processors use fewer registers than x64 processors
• 64-bit Windows Operating System and x64 Processor Architecture
• Capable of addressing 128+ GB of RAM
• Enhanced performance for memory management
• Additional security features
• x64 architecture is backward compatible with x86
• Process much more complex instructions at a much higher rate
32-bit and 64-bit Compatibility in Windows OS
Types of Operating Systems
Desktop Operating
System
Network Operating
System
• Supports a single user
• Supports multiple users
• Runs single-user
applications
• Runs multi-user
applications
• Shares files and folders
• Robust and redundant
• Shares peripherals
• Provides increased security
• Used on a small network
• Used on a network
Types of Operating Systems
• Desktop operating systems:
• Microsoft Windows: Windows 7
• Macintosh: Mac OS X
• Linux
• UNIX
• A desktop OS has the following
characteristics:
• Supports a single user
• Runs single-user applications
• Shares files and folders on a small network
with limited security
Network Operating Systems (NOS)
• Common NOS include:
• Microsoft Windows Server
• Linux
• UNIX
• Mac OS X Server
• NOS has the following characteristics:
• Supports multiple users
• Runs multi-user applications
• Robust and redundant
• Provides increased security compared to desktop operating systems
Customer Requirements for an OS
• To select the proper operating system for a
determine:
customer first
• Budget constraints
• Compatibility with current hardware
• Compatibility with new hardware
• How the computers will be used
• Compatibility with existing applications
• Types of new applications to be used
Identify Minimum Hardware Requirements
• Customer may need to upgrade or purchase additional hardware to
support the required applications and OS.
• A cost analysis will indicate if purchasing new equipment is a better
idea than upgrading.
• Possible hardware upgrades:
• RAM capacity
• Hard drive size
• CPU
• Video card memory and speed
• Motherboard
Hardware Compatibility
• Most operating systems have an HCL.
• HCLs can be found on the manufacturer's website.
• HCL includes list of hardware that is known to work with the
operating system.
• Use Microsoft Compatibility Center for Windows 7 and Vista.
Operating System Upgrades
• Operating systems must be upgraded periodically.
• To remain compatible with the latest hardware and software.
• Because support for older OS is eventually withdrawn.
• Ensure that the new OS is compatible with the computer.
• Use Microsoft Upgrade Advisor to scan the system for incompatibility
issues before upgrading. Upgrade Advisor is free and downloadable from
the Microsoft Windows website.
• Backup all data prior to beginning the upgrade.
Data Migration
One of the following tools can be used to migrate data and settings:
• User State Migration Tool migrates all user files and settings to the
new OS.
• Windows Easy Transfer migrates personal files and settings when
switching from an old computer to new.
Note: Windows Easy Transfer replaced the Windows XP File and
Settings Transfer Wizard.
Installing the Operating System
• Reasons to perform a clean installation of an OS:
• When a computer is passed from one employee to another.
• When the operating system is corrupted.
• When the primary hard drive is replaced in a computer .
 Before performing a clean installation:
•Back up all data first.
•Explain to the customer that existing data will be erased.
•Confirm that all needed data has been successfully
transferred.
Hard Drive Setup Procedures
• Operating system setup methods:
• Install an OS over a network from a server.
• Install from OS files stored on CDs or DVDs.
• Partitioning and Formatting:
• Hard drive must be logically divided (partitioned).
• File system must be created on the hard drive.
• During the installation phase, most operating systems will
automatically partition and format the hard drive.
Hard Drive Formatting
• The first portion of the installation process deals with formatting and
partitioning the hard drive.
• The second portion prepares the disk to accept the file system.
• The file system provides the directory structure that organizes the
user's operating system, application, configuration, and data files.
• Examples of file systems:
• The New Technology File System (NTFS) - Supports partition sizes up to 16
exabytes
• The FAT32 file system - Supports partition sizes up to 2 TB. Used by
Windows XP and earlier OS versions.
Install the Operating System
• When a computer boots up with the Windows installation CD, the
Windows 7 installation process starts with three options:
• Install now - Sets up and installs the Windows 7 OS.
• What to know before installing Windows - Opens Help.
• Repair your computer - Opens the System Recovery Options.
• Under Install now three options are available:
• Upgrade - Upgrades Windows but keeps your current files, settings, and
programs. You can use this option to repair an installation.
• Custom (advanced) - Installs a clean copy of Windows in your choice of
location and allows you to change disks and partitions. It is also known as a
clean installation.
• Quit - Exits Setup.
Account Creation
• Windows 7 has three types of user accounts:
Administrator, Standard, and Guest.
• The Administrator Account must be created when
Windows 7 is installed.
• To create or remove a user account in Windows 7 use the following
path :
• Start > Control Panel > User Accounts > Add or remove
user accounts
Complete the Installation
• When Windows 7 installation completes:
• Computer will reboot
• Prompts to create user account
• Register Windows 7 and verify that you are
using a legal copy of the OS
• Verification enables you to download patches
and service packs
• Use Microsoft Update Manager to scan for
new software.
Custom Installation Options – Disk Cloning
With Microsoft System Preparation
• Follow these steps for disk cloning:
1.
Create a master installation on one computer.
2.
Run Sysprep.
3.
Create a disk image of the configured computer using third-party diskcloning software.
4.
Copy the disk image onto a server.
• When the destination computer is booted:
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A shortened version of the Windows setup program runs.
•
Setup installs drivers, creates user accounts, and configures network
settings.
Custom Installation Options
• Windows 7 has several different types of custom installations.
• Network Installation - Requires all setup files to be copied to a network
server.
• Preboot Execution Environment (PXE) Installation - Uses a PXE boot program
and a client’s network card to access the setup files.
• Unattended Installation - Uses a network distribution point that uses an
answer file.
• Image-based Installation - Uses Sysprep and a disk-imaging program, that
copies an image of the OS directly to the hard drive with no user intervention.
• Remote Installation - Downloads the installation across the network.
System Recovery Options
• Repair Disc- For Windows 7. Use the system repair disc to boot the
computer
• System Image Recovery – For Windows 7. It allows users to back up the
contents of their hard drive, including personal files and settings.
• Factory Recovery Partition – Some computers with Windows 7
preinstalled from the factory contain a hidden recovery partition with an
image of the bootable partition.
• Automated System Recovery (Windows XP Professional only) – The ASR
is a backup of the system state, services, and OS components. Used with
Windows installation disc to recover computer.
The Boot Sequence for Windows 7
Startup Modes
Pressing the F8 key during the boot process opens the Windows
Advanced Startup Options menu, which allows you to select how
to boot Windows.
• Safe Mode – Starts Windows but only loads drivers for basic
components, such as the keyboard and display.
• Safe Mode with Networking Support – Starts Windows identically to
Safe Mode and also loads the drivers for network components.
• Safe Mode with Command Prompt – Starts Windows and loads the
command prompt instead of the GUI interface.
• Last Known Good Configuration – Enables a user to load the
configurations settings of Windows that was used the last time that
Windows successfully started. It does this by accessing a copy of the
registry that is created for this purpose.
The Windows Registry Files
Multiboot Procedures
• Multiple OS can be installed on one computer
• To create a dual-boot system in Microsoft Windows:
• Must have more than one hard drive or a hard drive with more than one
partition.
• Install the oldest OS on the primary partition or the hard drive marked
with an active partition.
• Install the second OS on the second partition or hard drive.
• The boot files are automatically installed in the active partition.
• During the dual-boot process:
• The BOOTMGR file indicates that more than one OS is present.
• You are prompted to choose the OS that you want to load.
• NOTE: In Windows XP, the BOOT.INI file fills the role of the BOOTMGR file.
Disk Management Utility
• This utility can be to used to complete the following tasks:
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View drive status
Extend partitions
Split partitions
Assign drive letters
Add drives
Add arrays
• To access the Disk Management utility in Windows 7 and Windows Vista,
use the following path:
Select Start > right-click Computer > Manage > select Disk Management
Directory Structures
• The root level of the Windows directory structure, the partition, is
usually labeled drive C.
• Contains a set of standardized directories, called folders, for the operating
system, applications, configuration information, and data files.
• Directories may contain subdirectories. Subdirectories are commonly called
subfolders.
• Drive Mapping - letters are used to name physical or logical drives.
• Mounting a Volume - mapping a drive to an empty folder on a
volume. Mounted drives are assigned drive paths instead of letters.
File Extensions and Attributes
• Windows file system naming conventions:
• Maximum of 255 characters may be used.
• Characters such as a period (.) or a slash (\ /) are not allowed.
• An extension of three or four letters is added to the filename to identify the
file type.
• Filenames are not case sensitive.
• Windows filename extension examples:
• .docx- Microsoft Word
• .txt - ASCII text only
• .jpg - graphics format
• .pptx - Microsoft PowerPoint
• .zip - compression format
Windows Desktop
• A GUI provides graphical representations of all the files, folders, and
programs on a computer.
• Windows 7 and Windows Vista have a default theme called Aero. Aero
has translucent window borders, numerous animations, and icons that
are thumbnail images of the contents of a file
• Windows 7 includes the following new Aero features:
• Shake -Minimize all windows that are not being used by clicking the title bar of
one window and shaking the mouse.
• Peek - View the icons and gadgets on the desktop by pointing the mouse at
the right edge of the taskbar to make all windows transparent.
• Snap - Resize a window by dragging it to one edge of the screen.
• Gadgets -Windows 7 and Windows Vista users can place Gadgets on
the desktop. Gadgets are small applications such as games, sticky
notes, or a clock.
Windows Desktop Properties
• To customize the desktop in Windows 7 and
Windows Vista, right-click anywhere on the desktop
and choose Personalize to:
• change desktop icons, mouse pointers, and your
account picture.
• modify a theme’s background, color, sound, and
screensaver.
Windows Desktop, Tools, and Applications
• To customize the Start Menu or the Taskbar, rightclick it and choose Properties.
• The Task Manager allows you to view all
applications that are running and to close any
applications that have stopped responding:
• CTRL-ALT-DEL and select Start Task Manager.
• right-click the taskbar and select Start Task Manager.
Computer and Windows Explorer
• Computer allows access to the various installed drives (My Computer in
Windows XP)
• Windows Explorer - used to navigate the file system includes:
• Search box - Access previous searches. Filter search results.
• New folder button - Create new folders with one click.
• Arrange by - Organize items easily according to different criteria.
• Preview pane button - Turn the preview pane on or off.
• Applications can be launched in several ways:
• Click the application on the Start menu or Taskbar.
• Double-click the application shortcut icon on the desktop.
• Double-click the application executable on the desktop or in Windows Explorer.
• Launch the application from the Run window or command line.
Windows 7 Libraries
• Allows for easy organization of content from storage devices on local
computer and network.
• Are virtual folders that present content from different locations within the
same view.
• Include four default Libraries - Documents, Music, Pictures, and Videos.
• To add a file to a library, right-click it, select Include in library, and then
choose which library to add the item.
• To create a new library, open a folder and select Include in Library >
Create new library
Control Panel Utilities
• System and Security - To configure system and security settings
• Network and Internet - To configure network connection types
• Hardware and Sound - To configure devices connected to the computer and
settings for sound
• Programs - To remove, change, and repair applications
• User Accounts and Family Safety - To create and remove user accounts and set
up parental controls
• Appearance and Personalization - To control the look and feel of the Windows
GUI
• Clock, Language, and Region - To specify location and language
• Ease of Access - To configure Windows for vision, hearing, and mobility needs
User Accounts
• User Accounts Utility:
• Create a user account.
• Manage password, change picture, change account name
and type, manage another account, and change User
Account Control (UAC) settings.
• Start > Control Panel> select User Accounts
• User Account Control (UAC):
• Monitors programs on a computer and warns users when
an action might present a threat to the system.
Internet Options
• To access Internet Options select Start > Control Panel > Internet
Options
Action Center
• Used to configure security settings in Windows 7 and Vista.
• Select Start > Control Panel > Action Center.
Windows Firewall
• The Windows Firewall Utility implements a security policy by
adjusting the following settings:
• Allow a program or feature through Windows Firewall
• Change notification settings
• Turn Windows Firewall on or off
• Restore defaults
• Advanced settings
•
Start > Control Panel > Windows Firewall.
The System Utility
• View basic system information, access tools and configure advanced
settings including:
• Computer Name -View or modify the name and workgroup settings for a
computer, as well as change the domain or workgroup.
• Hardware - Access the Device Manager or adjust the device installation
settings.
• Advanced -Configure settings for performance, user profiles, startup, and
recovery.
• System Protection - Access System restore and configure protection settings.
• Remote -Adjust settings for Remote Assistance and Remote Desktop.
• Start > Control Panel > System
Device Manager
• View settings for devices in the
computer and:
• Update a driver - Change the
currently installed driver.
• Roll back a driver - Change the
currently installed driver to the
previously installed driver.
• Uninstall a driver
• Disable a device
• Start > Control Panel > System >
Device Manager
Computer Management Console
• Provides utilities to manage your
computer including:
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Task Scheduler
Event Viewer
Shared Folders
Local Users and Groups
Performance
Device Manager
Disk Management
• Start > Control Panel > Administrative
Tools > Computer Management
Event Viewer
• Logs a history of events
regarding applications,
security, and the system.
• These log files are a valuable
troubleshooting tool.
• Start > Control Panel >
Administrative Tools > Event
Viewer
Services and Performance Monitor
Services:
•Start, stop, or disable services.
•Start > Control Panel >
Administrative Tools > Services.
Performance Monitor:
•Record performance data and
configure alerts.
•Start > Control Panel >
Administrative Tools > Performance
Monitor
Disk Defragmenter and Disk Error- Checking Tool
• Disk Defragmenter makes files on the hard drive contiguous and
speeds up the reading of files.
• To access the Disk Defragmenter in Windows 7, select Start > All
Programs > Accessories > System Tools > Disk Defragmenter.
• CHKDSK checks the integrity of files and folders by scanning the hard
disk surface for physical errors.
• Access CHKDSK from within the Disk Defragmenter or enter CHKDSK
in command line to detect and repair disk errors.
System Information Tool
• Collect and display information about local and remote computers
• To access the System Information tool, Start > All Programs >
Accessories > System Tools > System Information
Remote Desktop
• Remote Desktop
• View and control a computer from a remote location.
• Remote Assistance
• Also allows user to view what the remote technician is
doing to the computer.
• To access in Windows 7 or Windows Vista, select Start > All Programs
> Accessories > Remote Desktop Connection
Control Panel Utilities Unique to Specific
Windows Versions
• Windows 7
•HomeGroup
•Action Center
•Windows Defender
•RemoteApp and Desktop
Connections
•Troubleshooting
• Windows Vista
•Tablet PC settings
•Pen and Input Devices
•Offline Files
•Problem Reports and Solutions
•Printers
• Windows XP
•Add/Remove Programs
•Printers and Faxes
•Automatic Updates
•Network Connections
•Network Setup wizard
Command-Line Tools
• Start > Type Cmd in the search box > Press Enter
Run Line Utility
• Enter commands to configure settings and system modifications.
• To access in Windows 7 select Start > Search box > Type run > Enter.
• Common Commands
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CMD –Used to execute command line programs.
DXDIAG - Displays details for all DirectX components and drivers.
EXPLORER – Opens Windows Explorer.
MMC - Opens the Microsoft Management console (MMC).
MSCONFIG - Opens the System Configuration Utility.
MSINFO32 - Displays complete system summary of the computer.
Virtualization
• Host machine uses its system resources to host a virtual machine.
• Hosting a virtual machine allows users to access the functionality and
resources provided by an OS that is not on the local PC.
• Provides access to applications, file-sharing services, and other
productivity tools.
• Users can further increases the functionality of their system by
running multiple virtual machines.
Virtualization
• The software that creates and manages a virtual machine on a host
machine is called the hypervisor, or Virtual Machine Manager
(VMM).
• Allocates the physical system resources, such as CPU, RAM, and hard drive,
to each virtual machine as needed.
• Windows Virtual PC is the virtualization platform for Windows 7
• Allows you to partition system resources for a Window OS among virtual
machines .
Virtual Machine PC Requirements
Preventive Maintenance Planning
Components of a preventive maintenance plan:
• Updates to the operating system and applications
• Updates to anti-virus and other protective software
• Hard drive error checking
• Hard drive backup
• Hard drive defragmentation
• Device drive updates
• Firmware updates
• Startup programs
Schedule Tasks
• The CLI at command launches tasks at a specified time using the
command line interface.
• The Windows Task Scheduler launches tasks at a specified time using
a graphical interface.
• To access the Windows Task Scheduler in Windows 7 and Windows
Vista, select Start > All Programs > Accessories > System Tools > Task
Scheduler.
• Both of these tools allow users to set commands to run at a certain
time just once, or to repeat at selected days or times.
Restore Point
• If a computer crashes, the OS can roll back to a restore point using
the System Restore Utility.
• The restore utility only operates on OS and application files.
• Anti-virus software should be run to remove malware before creating a restore
point.
 When to create a restore point:
•Before updating or replacing
the OS.
•When installing or updating
hardware.
•When an application or
driver is installed.
 Start > All Programs >
Accessories > System Tools >
System Restore
Backup the Hard Drive
• Use the Microsoft Backup Tool to perform backups.
• Establish a backup strategy that will allow for the recovery of data.
• Decide how often the data must be backed up and the type of backup
to perform.
• It is only necessary to make copies of the files that have changed
since the last backup.
• To access the backup utility in Windows 7, select Start > Control
Panel > Backup and Restore.
Types of Backups
Description
Clear
marker
Normal
Selected files and folders
Yes
Copy
Selected files and folders
No
Differential
Selected files and folders that
changed since the last backup
No
Incremental
Selected files and folders that
changed since the last backup
Yes
Daily
Selected files and folders that
changed during the day
No
Troubleshooting Process
Step 1 Identify the problem
Step 2 Establish a Theory of Probable Cause
Step 3 Test the Theory to Determine Cause
Step 4 Establish a Plan of Action to Resolve the Problem
and Implement the Solution
Step 5 Verify Full System Functionality and Implement
Preventive Measures
Step 6 Document Findings, Actions, and Outcomes
Step 1 - Identify the Problem
 Computer configuration
• Operating system, patches and updates, network environment, connection type
 Open-ended questions
• What problems are you experiencing with your computer?
• What software has been installed on your computer recently?
• What were you doing when the problem was identified?
• What operating system do you have installed on your computer?
• What updates or patches have been installed on your computer?
 Closed-ended questions
• Has anyone else used your computer recently?
• Does the computer boot up successfully?
• Have you changed your password recently?
• Have you received any error messages on your computer?
Step 2 - Establish a Theory of Probable Causes
 Create a list of the most common reasons why the error would occur
and list the easiest or most obvious causes at the top with the more
complex causes at the bottom.
• Incorrect settings in BIOS
• Caps lock key is set to ON
• Non-bootable media in the floppy drive during computer boot up
• Password has changed
• Incorrect monitor settings in control panel
• Operating system update failure
• Driver update failure
• Malware infection
• Hard drive failure
• Corrupt operating system files
Step 3 - Test the Theory to Determine Cause
 Testing your theories of probable causes one at a time, starting
with the quickest and easiest.
• Log in as a different user.
• Use third party diagnostic software.
• New software or software updates have just been installed.
• Uninstall recently installed applications.
• Boot into safe mode to determine if the problem is driver-related.
• Roll back newly updated drivers.
• Examine Device Manager for device conflicts.
• Examine event logs for warnings or errors.
• Check the hard drive for errors and fix file system issues.
• Use the system file checker to recover corrupt system files.
• Use system restore if a system update or service pack has been installed.
Step 4 - Establish a Plan of Action to Resolve the
Problem and Implement the Solution
 If a quick procedure does not correct the problem, you might need to
research the problem further to establish the exact cause.
 Divide larger problems into smaller problems that can be analyzed
and solved individually.
 Create a list of possible solutions and implement them one at a time.
If you implement a possible solution and it does not work, reverse the
solution and try another.
Step 5 - Verify Full System Functionality and
Implement Preventive Measures
 Verifying full system functionality and implementing any preventive
measures if needed.
• Shut down the computer and restart it.
• Check event logs to make sure there are no new warnings or errors.
• Check Device Manager to see that there are no warnings or errors.
• Run DxDiag to make sure DirectX is running correctly.
• Make sure applications run properly.
• Make sure network shares are accessible.
• Make sure the Internet can be accessed.
• Re-run system file checker to ensure all files are correct.
• Re-run scandisk to make sure no problems remain on the hard drive.
• Check task manager to ensure no programs are running incorrectly.
• Re-run any third party diagnostic tools.
 Have the customer verify the solution and system functionality.
Step 6 - Document Findings, Actions, and
Outcomes
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Discuss the solution with the customer.
Have the customer confirm that the problem has been solved.
Give the customer all appropriate paperwork.
Document the process in the work order and in your technician’s
journal:
• Problem description
• Solution
• Components used
• Amount of time spent in solving the problem
Common Problems and Solutions
 Operating system problems can be attributed to
hardware, application, or configuration issues, or to
some combination of the three.
 See chart of common OS problems and solutions in
curriculum 5.6.2.1
Chapter 5 Summary
• Several different operating systems are available, and you must consider
the customer's needs and environment when choosing an operating
system.
• The main steps in setting up a customer's computer include preparing
the hard drive, installing an operating system, creating user accounts,
and configuring installation options.
• A GUI shows icons of all files, folders, and applications on the computer.
A pointing device, such as a mouse, is used to navigate in a GUI desktop.
• A CLI uses commands to complete tasks and navigate the file system.
Chapter 5 Summary (Continued)
• Establish a backup strategy that allows for the recovery of data. Normal,
copy, differential, incremental, and daily backups are all available in
Windows operating systems.
• Virtualization has become a popular method of providing staff with
critical resources, such as applications, file-sharing services, and other
productivity tools.
• Preventive maintenance techniques help to ensure optimal operation of
the operating system.
• Some of the tools available for troubleshooting an OS problem include
administrative tools, system tools, and CLI commands.