Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification

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Transcript Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification

Chapter 2
Linux Installation and Usage
Objectives
Install Red Hat Fedora Linux using good
practices
 Outline the structure of the Linux
interface
 Enter basic shell commands and find
command documentation
 Properly shut down the Linux operating
system

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Installing Linux: Preparing for
Installation

All OSs require a minimum set of
hardware components to function
properly
 Can be obtained from manual or file in DVD
of OS, or from vendor website

Each individual hardware component
should be checked against the
Hardware Compatibility List (HCL) found
on the vendor’s Web site
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Installing Linux: Preparing for
Installation (continued)
Table 2-1 Fedora 13 hardware requirements
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Installing Linux: Preparing for
Installation (continued)

Need to identify software that will be
used in the Linux operating system
 Computer’s host name
 Network configuration parameters
 Specific software packages to be installed

Create preinstallation checklist to
document hardware and software
information
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Table 2-2 Sample preinstallation checklist
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Installing Linux: Installation
Methods
DVD media
 FTP server
 HTTP Web server
 NFS server
 SMB server
 Packages on hard disk
 CD-ROM media

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Starting the Installation and
Checking Media for Errors
Boot from first Red Hat Fedora Linux DVD
 A Welcome screen is displayed, can select
option:







Default graphical installation
Installation with basic video driver
Rescue installed items
Boot from local drive
Memory test
Check media for errors prior to installation
 Optional, but recommended
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Starting the Installation and
Checking Media for Errors
(continued)
Figure 2-1: Beginning a Fedora installation
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Starting the Installation and
Checking Media for Errors
(continued)
Figure 2-3: Testing DVD media
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Choosing the Language,
Keyboard, and Storage Type
Allowed to choose installation language
 Choose keyboard configuration

 Keyboard model and layout automatically
detected

Select types of storage devices used to
host the Linux OS
 For internal or locally attached hard drive
installation, select Basic Storage Devices
 For installation on SAN or DASD, select
Specialized Storage Devices
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Choosing the Language,
Keyboard, and Storage Type
(continued)
Figure 2-4: Selecting an installation language
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Choosing the Language,
Keyboard, and Storage Type
(continued)
Figure 2-5: Verifying keyboard configuration
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Selecting a Host Name, Time
Zone, and Root Password

Supply a host name that will identify system on
the network
 By default use localhost.localdomain
Important to select correct time zone for the
local system
 Authentication: Users log in via valid user
name and password
 Configure two user accounts

 Administrator account (root): full rights to system
 Regular user account
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Selecting a Host Name, Time
Zone, and Root Password
(continued)
Figure 2-7: Selecting a host name
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Selecting a Host Name, Time
Zone, and Root Password
(continued)
Figure 2-8: Selecting a time zone
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Selecting a Host Name, Time
Zone, and Root Password
(continued)
Figure 2-9: Setting a root password
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Configuring Storage Devices

Most common storage devices for storing
Linux OS are hard disks
 Parallel Advanced Technology Attachment
(PATA)
 Serial Advanced Technology Attachment (SATA)
 Small Computer Systems Interface (SCSI)

Each hard disk is divided into partitions
 Partitions formatted with filesystems
 Maximum four primary partitions
 Extended partition can be divided into logical
drives
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Configuring Storage Devices
(continued)
Table 2-4: Example of a partitioning scheme for a primary
master IDE hard disk
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Configuring Storage Devices
(continued)
Filesystems can be accessed if attached
(mounted) to a directory
 Minimum of two partitions

 Partition for root directory
 Partition for virtual memory (swap memory)
○ Area on hard disk used to store information
normally residing in physical memory (RAM)

Automatic or manual partitioning
 Better to manually partition
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Table 2-5: Common Linux filesystems and sizes
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Configuring Storage Devices
(continued)

Different types of filesystems
 Ext2: used on most Linux computers
 Ext3, Ext4: performs journaling
 Vfat: compatible with Windows’ FAT
filesystem
 REISER: performs journaling
 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Comparasons_of_file_systems

Journaling: keeps track of the
information written to the hard drive
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Configuring Storage Devices
(continued)
Figure 2-10: Selecting a partition strategy
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Configuring Storage Devices
(continued)
When creating a partition, specify the
partition technology
 For standard disk partitions need to provide
information regarding size, filesystem type,
encryption options and mount point
 Instead of standard partitions, can create
volumes that span multiple disks

 Logical Volume Manager (LVM)
 Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks (RAID)
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Configuring the Boot Loader

Boot loader: program started by BIOS at
system startup
 Loads Linux kernel into memory from hard
disk
 Can also boot other existing OSs
GRand Unified Bootloader (GRUB): boot
loader configured during Fedora Linux
installation
 Dual booting: choose OS to boot at
startup

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Configuring the Boot Loader
(continued)
Figure 2-14: Configuring a boot loader
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Configuring the Boot Loader
(continued)
Boot loader usually resides on the MBR
or on first sector of / or /boot partition
 Kernel parameters: information passed
to Linux kernel via the boot loader
 Large Block Addressing 32-bit (LBA32):
enables Large Block Addressing in boot
loader

 For large hard disks not fully supported by
the BIOS
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Selecting and Installing Packages
Figure 2-15: Selecting system role and software
repositories
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Selecting and Installing Packages
(continued)
Figure 2-16: Selecting individual packages
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Completing the Firstboot Wizard

Complete the installation
 License agreement
 User accounts and authentication
 Date and time
○ Network Time Protocol (NTP)
 Confirmation of hardware to be used
Log in with user account for daily tasks
 Use Network Login: authenticate users
based on an external database

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Completing the Firstboot Wizard
(continued)
Figure 2-18: Creating a regular user account
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Completing the Firstboot
Wizard (continued)
Figure 2-19: Choosing authentication options
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Completing the Firstboot
Wizard (continued)
Figure 2-20: Advanced authentication options
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Completing the Firstboot
Wizard (continued)
Figure 2-21: Setting the date and time
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Completing the Firstboot
Wizard (continued)
Figure 2-22: Viewing the hardware profile
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Basic Linux Usage: Shells,
Terminals, and the Kernel
Terminal: channel allowing users to log
on to the kernel locally or across a
network
 Shell: user interface which accepts user
inputs and transfers them to the kernel
 BASH Shell (Bourne Again Shell):
default Linux shell

 Command line shell

Linux allows multiple terminals, each
with its own shell
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Basic Linux Usage: Shells,
Terminals, and the Kernel
(continued)
Figure 2-23: Shells, terminals, and the kernel
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Basic Linux Usage: Shells,
Terminals, and the Kernel
(continued)

Graphical interface
 Start GUI environment on top of BASH shell
 Or, switch to a graphical terminal
○ e.g., GNOME Display Manager (gdm)
From the local server, use key combinations
to change to separate terminal
 Command-line terminal may be accessed
from GUI environment
 Command line prompt:

 Root user: #
 Regular user:
$
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Basic Linux Usage: Shells,
Terminals, and the Kernel
(continued)
Table 2-6: Common Linux terminals
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Basic Linux Usage: Shells,
Terminals, and the Kernel
(continued)
Figure 2-25: Accessing a command-line
terminal in a GUI environment
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Basic Shell Commands

Commands: indicate name of program
to execute
 Case sensitive

Options: specific letters starting with “-”
appearing after command name
 Alter way command works

Arguments: specify a command’s
specific working parameters
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Basic Shell Commands
(continued)
Table 2-7: Some common Linux commands
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Shell Metacharacters

Metacharacters: characters with a
special meaning
 e.g., $
○ Refers to a variable
 Avoid use of metacharacters when typing
commands unless using their special
functionality
 Single quotation marks ‘ ’ protect
metacharacter from being interpreted
specially by the shell
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Shell Metacharacters
(continued)
Table 2-8: Common BASH Shell metacharacters
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Getting Command Help

Manual (man) pages: most common
form of documentation for Linux
commands
 At command prompt, type “man” followed by
command name
 Contain different sections
 Searchable by keyword

Info pages: set of local, easy-to-read
command syntax documentation
 At command prompt, type “info” followed by
a command name
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Getting Command Help
(continued)
Table 2-9: Manual page section numbers
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Shutting Down the Linux
System
Table 2-10: Commands to halt and reboot the Linux
operating system
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Summary

Prior to installation
 Verify hardware requirements using HCL
 Create preinstallation checklist

DVD–based installation
 Easiest
 Most common
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Summary (continued)
Installation prompts for language, host
name, date, time zone, keyboard layout,
user account configuration, storage
configuration, boot loader configuration,
and package selection
 Users must log in to a terminal and
receive a shell before they are able to
interact with the Linux system and
kernel

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Summary (continued)
From any type of terminal you can enter
commands, options, and arguments at a
shell prompt to perform system tasks,
obtain command help, or shut down the
Linux system
 The shell is case sensitive and
understands a variety of special
characters called shell metacharacters,
which should be protected if their special
meaning is not required

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