The Late Medieval Church

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Transcript The Late Medieval Church

The Late Medieval Church
• Who is the head of the Catholic
• What was the influence of the
Church on medieval Europe?
• Why did the Church have such power
over people?
The Church (post-1200)
College of Cardinals
and the Curia
Archbishops, bishops, priests
The Catholic Church: Height of Power
• Between 1050—1300,
reached height of
political, spiritual, and
cultural influence
• filled the power vacuum
left from the collapse of
the classical world.
• Power struggle between
the pope and Holy
Roman Emperor over
control of clergy
Pope Innocent III (r. 1198-1216)
• 1200—most powerful ruler in
• strengthened the church politically,
but weakened it spiritually
– Influenced elections of regional princes
• Utilized the plentitude of power—
the pope was more powerful than
any bishop of the Church or political
– Removed clergymen of possible
Characteristics of the Medieval
• Describe the qualities of the medieval Church
• There will be a summary writing on the goals,
beliefs of its, superstition, and problems of the
medieval Church of Europe
• As you watch the video, record your findings
• Based on the video, what is something that is
revealing about the power of the Church.
Power of the Church
• provided schools for the children of the upper class.
• the church controlled about 1/3 of the land in
Western Europe.
tithe  1/10 tax on your assets given to the church.
 Peter’s Pence  1 penny per person [paid by the
Pope Urban IV (r. 1261-1264)
• Created the Rota Romana—law
court for Church’s legal
• Increased clerical taxation of
the people to help raise funds
for the Church
• By early 1300s, the Church was
more powerful than any secular
The Church and Corruption
• Curia—church court to increase church
• Simony—the purchase of church offices
• Pluralism—the holding of several offices w/o
the ability to do all job requirements
• Clergyelaborate dress, benefices (gifts from
parish), secular politics, and sexual
• Anticlericalism—hostility towards clergy—not
a popular view by most Christians
St. Francis of Assisi
• Worked to reform the
Church of materialism
• Remained loyal to
Church in hope of
eliminating secular
goals of Church in place
of spiritual goals
Boniface VIII (r. 1294–1303) vs.
Philip the Fair (r. 1285–1314)
• French & English kings raise taxes on clergy; Boniface
decrees Clericis laicos—new taxes need papal
• French king Philip the Fair cuts off flow of money to
Rome; Boniface concedes
• Boniface issues Unam Sanctam (1302), as
confrontation with Philip ramps up, asserting
subordination of temporal to spiritual power
• French army assault & molest Boniface, who later
• result: popes never again seriously threaten
European rulers
Pope Boniface VIII (r. 1294–1303), depicted
here, opposed the taxation of the clergy by the
kings of France and England and issued one of
the strongest declarations of papal authority over
rulers, the bull Unam Sanctam. This statue is in
the Museo Civico, Bologna, Italy.
Statue of Pope Boniface VIII. Museo Civico, Bologna. Scala/Art Resource, NY
Avignon Papacy (1309–1377)
• Pope Clement V (French)
moves papal court here to
escape strife of Rome
– “Babylonian Captivity”
• to get needed revenue,
papal taxes go up, and
sale of indulgences begins
• Seven popes will serve at
Avignonall French
• England greatly opposed the Avignon Papacy
due to unfair treatment of the English by the
French popes
Practices of the Avignon Papacy
• P. 345-347
• Read and describe the practices of Pope
Clement V and Clement VI that led to an
unsavory and materialistic image of the
• Under Pope John XXII, what led to greater
criticism of the Avignon Papacy.
• Evaluate the response of monarchies to the
power of the Church (National Opposition)
Conciliar Movement
• Conciliar Theory: idea that a representative
council of Church clergy should regulate
actions of pope
– Became popular due to the materialistic reigns of
the Avignon papacy
– A council of the Church yielded more power than
the Pope
Marsilius of Padua (1270-1342)
• P. 347
• Explain the belief of Marsilius of
Padua in relation to power of
• Why was his teaching
condemned as heretical?
Marsilius of Padua (1270-1342)
• wrote Defender of the
Peacechurch subordinate to
state; should be governed by a
general council
• Believed in autonomy of secular
• Secular rulers had right to punish
based on law, but not Pope
based on spiritual law
• Reform of clerical practices
John Wycliffe (d. 1384)
• Criticized vices of clergy, papal
infallibility, taxes by the pope,
doctrine of transubstantiation,
pope’s authority
• Lollards: followers of Wycliffe
• English spokesman for rights
of royalty against popes
John Huss (d. 1415)
Czech priest; gained following in Bohemia
Rejected authority of pope
Hussites (similar to Lollards)
John Huss burned at the stake at Council of
• Both groups considered “pre-Protestants”
A portrayal of John
Huss as he was led to
the stake at
Constance. After his
execution, his bones
and ashes were
scattered in the Rhine
River to prevent his
followers from claiming
them as relics. This
pen-and-ink drawing is
from Ulrich von
Richenthal’s Chronicle
of the Council of
Constance (ca. 1450).
Great Schism (1378–1417)
What is the economical impact of having a favorable pope
to your country?
Great Schism (1378–1417)
• Pope Gregory XI returned the papacy to Rome
• After death, the cardinals elected Italian Urban VI as
new pope
• Urban VI wanted reform of the papacy
• French cardinals and King Charles V
disapproveddemanded the return of Pope to
• Sept. 1378—13 French Cardinals elected new Pope
Clement VII
• Urban VI and Clement VII—rival popes; England &
allies support Urban, France & allies support Clement
• Council of Pisa (1409–1410): cardinals elected
Alexander V as new pope; deposed Urban & Clement
(who refused to step down),
– three contending popes
• Council of Constance (1414–1417):
sacrosanctaMartin V elected new pope; provides
for regular councils every few years
• Council of Basel (1431–1449): height of conciliar
government of church
• Conciliar movement short-lived; by 1460 Pope Pius II
regained complete control of the Church absent of
• End of Middle Ages, the STATE reigned over the