The English Renaissance: The Tudors and James I

download report

Transcript The English Renaissance: The Tudors and James I

The English Renaissance
The Tudors and James I
Performer - Culture & Literature
Marina Spiazzi, Marina Tavella,
Margaret Layton © 2012
The English Renaissance: The Tudors and James I
1. The Tudor Dynasty
•
•
•
•
•
Performer - Culture & Literature
Henry VII (1485-1509)
Henry VIII (1509-1547)
Mary I (1547-1553)
Edward VI (1553-1558)
Elizabeth I (1558-1603)
The English Renaissance: The Tudors and James I
2. Henry VII (1485-1509)
•
•
•
Came to the English throne when the War of the Roses ended.
First monarch of the Tudor dynasty.
Under his rule: peace and prosperity
-
He laid the foundations of English Humanism
Army and navy were recognised and put under the
direct control of the king;
-
Political alliances: marriage between his son
Arthur and the Spanish princess, Catherine of
Aragon. + marriage between his daughter
Margaret and James IV of Scotland
Performer - Culture & Literature
The English Renaissance: The Tudors and James I
2. Henry VII (1485-1509)
•
Strengthened the monarchy and turned England into a
modern State.
•
Aimed at increasing and reinforcing England’s trading
position.(a mercantile fleet was created)
•
Laid the foundations of English naval power by
increased spending on shipbuilding
merchant fleet+ army +navy= military
power.
Performer - Culture & Literature
The English Renaissance: The Tudors and James I
3. Henry VIII (1509-1547)
•
•
Henry VII’s second son.
Had all gifts of body and mind thought necessary for a prince: he was a
soldier, a poet, a musician, and a good horseman.
•
Called the ‘Golden Prince’ both for his natural
good looks and his chivalry. His reign was
welcomed as the beginning of a new Golden Age
•
He supported the Catholic cause against Martin
Luther  proclaimed ‘Defender of the Faith’ by
the Pope.
Performer - Culture & Literature
The English Renaissance: The Tudors and James I
3. Henry VIII (1509-1547)
•
Married Catherine of Aragon who bore him a daughter, Mary.
•
Asked the Pope for a divorce to marry his pregnant mistress Anne
Boleyn.
•
Broke with Rome when the Pope refused and
declared himself ‘Supreme Head of the Church
of England’ with the Act of Supremacy (1534).
•
Dissolved the monasteries, taking their wealth.
•
Ireland remained a Catholic country.
Beginning of the Irish question.
Performer - Culture & Literature
The English Renaissance: The Tudors and James I
3. Henry VIII (1509-1547)
•
With the Reformation the old aristocracy of feudal origin and Catholic
sympathies was gradually replaced by a new Protestant aristocracy linked to
the Tudors by the purchase of the land confiscated by the monasteries
•
Also the mercantile and commercial middle class tended to favour
Protestantism.
•
England claimed its autonomy in the domains of politics and religion
against the great Catholic powers of Europe (France and Spain).
Performer - Culture & Literature
The English Renaissance: The Tudors and James I
3. Henry VIII (1509-1547)
•
Anne Boleyn gave him a second daughter, Elizabeth.
•
Henry had four more
wives
•
and one son, Edward,
later Edward VI, from
his third wife.
Performer - Culture & Literature
The English Renaissance: The Tudors and James I
•
Henry VIII’s policy met with several opponents (and victims):
•
Sir Thomas More, great humanist and author of Utopia
•
The young poet and diplomat the Earl of Surrey
•
Two of his wives: Ann Boleyn and Cathrine Howard, accused of
being unfaithful and sentenced to death
Performer - Culture & Literature
The English Renaissance: The Tudors and James I
4. Edward VI (1547-1553)
•
The son of Jane Seymour (3rd wife) and Henry VIII.
•
Radical Protestantism.
•
Introduced The Book of Common
Prayer in English.
Performer - Culture & Literature
The English Renaissance: The Tudors and James I
5. Mary I (1547-1553)
•
The daughter of Henry VIII and Catherine
of Aragon.
•
•
Refused to abandon the Catholic faith.
Tried to restore England to papal
obedience.
•
Married the Catholic Philip of Spain.
•
The burning of Protestants earned her the nickname
‘Bloody Mary’ and alienated public opinion.
•
Died without an heir.
Performer - Culture & Literature
The English Renaissance: The Tudors and James I
6. Elizabeth I (1558-1603)
•
•
Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn’s daughter.
Became queen of a divided nation, the majority of which
was anti-Catholic and anti-Spanish.
•
She was twenty-five and had a strong
personality, a lively intelligence and a
passionate character.
•
She had received an excellent
education: she could speak French,
Latin and Italian.
Performer - Culture & Literature
The English Renaissance: The Tudors and James I
6. Elizabeth I (1558-1603)
•
Her Church of England restored the country firmly to Protestantism, yet
she granted Catholics freedom of worship.
•
Was unmarried and used this as
a political weapon.
•
Said that ‘the Queen was married
to her people’ and became the
‘Virgin Queen’.
Performer - Culture & Literature
The English Renaissance: The Tudors and James I
6. Elizabeth I (1558-1603)
•
Went on royal progresses to be seen and to get to
know her people.
•
Inspired literature, music, drama and
poetry.
•
Recognised Spain as her main trade
rival and enemy.
•
Expanded exploration and overseas
trade.
Performer - Culture & Literature
The English Renaissance: The Tudors and James I
6. Elizabeth I (1558-1603)
•
Encouraged sea-captains Francis Drake and Walter Raleigh
in their piracy against Spanish ships and took a share of the
profits.
•
•
Defeated the Spanish Armada in 1588.
Laid the basis of England’s empire
chartering seven companies – including
the East India Company – to colonise in
the name of trade.
Performer - Culture & Literature
The English Renaissance: The Tudors and James I
7. James I (1603-1625)
•
•
Elizabeth died in 1603 without heirs.
James VI of Scotland became the first Stuart king in England
with the title of James I.
•
•
Was a Protestant.
Based his rule on the theory of the
‘divine right of kings’.
•
•
•
Summoned Parliament only to ask for money.
Interested in witchcraft.
In his treatise Daemonologie (1597) he
declared his belief in black magic.
Performer - Culture & Literature
The English Renaissance: The Tudors and James I
8. James I and the Puritans
•
•
Religion was the most urgent problem of his reign.
Catholics barred from public life and fined if they
refused to attend the Church of England.
•
Extreme Protestants, called Puritans, disapproved
of the rites and bishops of the Church of England.
Performer - Culture & Literature
The English Renaissance: The Tudors and James I
8. James I and the Puritans
•
•
Puritans had a high sense of duty and morality
A hundred of them – the Pilgrim Fathers – applied for a
government patent to colonise New England
•
In 1620 they left
England for America on
the Mayflower and
founded New Plymouth.
Performer - Culture & Literature
The English Renaissance: The Tudors and James I
8. The Gunpowder Plot
•
James I authorised a new translation of the Bible in 1604.
•
In 1605 some radical Catholics plotted to blow up the king in
the Houses of Parliament.
•
The failure of the Gunpowder Plot is
commemorated in England on 5th November.
Children have fireworks and burn effigies of Guy
Fawkes, one of the conspirators, on large fires.
Performer - Culture & Literature