Defense - Auburn University

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Transcript Defense - Auburn University

Practically Realizing
Random Access Scan
Anand S. Mudlapur
Department of Electrical and
Computer Engineering
Auburn University, AL 36849 USA
Motivation for This Work
• Serial scan (SS) test sequence lengths and
test power consumption are increasing
rapidly.
– Reduction of test power and test time are
complementary objectives in serial scan.
• Scope of increasing delay fault coverage is
limited in serial scan.
• In spite of the advantages (test time, test
volume, test power, and ease of testing for
delay faults), random access scan (RAS) is
not popular due to high overhead.
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Outline
• Introduction to scan based testing
– Advantages
– Limitations
• Introduction to RAS
• Design of a new toggle RAS Flip-Flop
• Highlight the uniqueness and feasibility
of our design due to the reduction of
two global signals
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Outline (contd.)
• A new scan-out structure
• Analytical formulation of hardware
overhead
• Algorithm to compact test vectors
• ATPG targeted for toggle RAS
• Results on ISCAS Benchmark Circuits
• Case study on an industrial circuit
• Conclusion and future work
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Serial Scan: Most Popular DFT
Method
PI
Combinational Circuit
Scan-in
FF
FF
FF
PO
Scan-out
Test control
(TC)
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Introduction to Serial Scan (contd.)
• Advantage: Enables application of
combinational vectors to sequential circuits
• Problems:
– Clock cycles prohibitive as number of flip-flops
increases
– Scan-in often performed at a slow scan clock
compared to functional clock of the circuit
– Scan-in and scan-out cause undesirable circuit
activity resulting in excessive power dissipation
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Test Power and Time of Serial Scan
• Test power may exceed critical design limits.
• All flip-flops are controlled and observed
although a test may need those operation only
on a subset of flip-flops.
• Example: A circuit with 5,000 Flip-Flops and
10,000 combinational test vectors
Total scan cycles = 5,000 × 10,000
+ 10,000 + 5,000
= 50,015,000 !
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Solutions for Test Time Problem
of Serial Scan
• Partial scan [Agrawal et. al. 88] provides a
trade off between ease of test generation and
hardware cost of scan. Test power may still
be a concern.
• Vector compaction [Touba et. al. 00], may
cause increased circuit activity resulting in
higher power consumption.
• Cross-Check [Gheewala et. al. 91] was a
comprehensive test method for sequential
circuits but the technology required
dedicated routing layers for test wiring.
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Cross-Check
• A grid architecture as
shown in the
adjoining figure
• Flip-flops contents
read out row-wise
• Data from the flipflops fed into a MISR
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Solutions for Test Power Problems
of Serial Scan
• Test scheduling for SOCs using power
constraint [Chou et. al. 91]: Test parallelism
reduces, increasing the test time.
• Slow scan-clock [Chandra et. al. 94]: Test
time increases.
• ATPG based methods [Wang et. al. 94,
Kajihara et. al. 02]: Result in lengthy test
sequences.
Contd.
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Further Solutions for Test Power
(contd.)
• Modification of the order of scan cells
or inserting inversion logic between
scan cells after the test generation
[Dabholkar et al. 98]; limited effect on
test power.
• Blocking hardware methods: Hold
latch, blocking gates; have additional
overhead.
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Delay Testing in Serial Scan
• Delay testing in serial scan is highly
constrained; may result in low fault coverage.
• Enhanced scan flip-flops can make the
application of arbitrary vectors possible.
• This technique requires a hold-latch
connected to each Flip-Flop in addition to a
“HOLD” signal routed to every hold latch
resulting in increased area overhead and
signal delay in the scan path.
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Delay Testing in Serial Scan
PI
Combinational Circuit
PO
CK
Scan-out
CK TC
HL
HL
HOLD
HOLD
V1 settles
SFF
SFF
TC
V1 s-in
Scan-in
V2 state
scan-in
V1
V2
Scan-out
Test result
latched
CK TC
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Introduction to RAS
• Random Access Scan (RAS) offers a single
solution to the problems faced by serial scan (SS):
– Each RAS cell is uniquely addressable for read
and write.
– RAS addresses both test application time and test
power problems simultaneously
• Previous and current publications on RAS:
• Ando, COMPCON-80
• Wagner, COMPCON-83
• Ito, DAC-90
• Baik et al., VLSI Design-04, ITC-05, ATS-05, VLSI Design-06
• Mudlapur et al., VDAT-05, ITC-05
• Disadvantage: High routing overhead – test
control, address and scan-in signals must be
routed to all flip-flops.
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Contributions of Present Work
• Eliminate scan-in signal from circuit by
using a new toggling RAS flip-flop.
• Eliminate test control signal to flipflops.
• Provide a new scan-out architecture:
– A hierarchical scan-out bus
– An option of multi-cycle scan-out
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Random Access Scan (RAS)
PI
PO
Combinational Circuit
Address
Inputs
FF
FF
FF
Scan-out
bus
Decoder
These signals
are eliminated
in our design
TC
During every test, only a subset of all Flip-flops needs to
be set and observed for testing the targeted faults
Scan-in
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Conventional RAS
Combinational
Logic Data
Scan-in
Clock
M
U
X
M
U
X
M
Mode
S
Combinational
Logic Data
RAS-FF
Address
Decoder
Address Register
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ACLK
17
New “Toggle” RAS Flip-Flop
Combinational
Logic Data
1M
Combinational
Logic Data
U
0X
M
To Output
BUS
S
Clock
x
y
RAS-FF
√nff Lines
Row Decoder
Address (log2nff)
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Output
BUS
Control
√nff Lines
Column
Decoder
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Toggle RAS Flip-Flop Operation
Function
Clock
Normal Data
Toggle Data
Hold Data
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Address decoder outputs
Row (x)
Column (y)
Active
0
0
Inactive
1
Active Clock
Inactive
Active Clock
1
Inactive
1
0
Inactive
0
1
Inactive
0
0
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Toggle Flip-Flop Operation (contd.)
Unaddressed FFs
x4
Decoded
address
lines
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RAS
FF
0
y1
RAS
FF
1
y2
MS Thesis Defence
Addressed FF
RAS
FF
01
y3
20
Macro Level Idea of Signals to RAS-FF
RAS
FF11
RAS
FF12
RAS
FF13
RAS
FF14
RAS
FF21
RAS
FF22
RAS
FF23
RAS
FF24
RAS
FF31
RAS
FF32
RAS
FF33
RAS
FF34
RAS
FF41
RAS
FF42
RAS
FF43
RAS
FF44
4-to-1 Scan-out
Macrocell
x1
x2
x3
x4
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y1
y2
y3
MS Thesis Defence
y4
To Next
Level
21
Scan-out Macrocell
• A 4x4 block scan-out data flow and control
logic
Data Bus From
4 RAS FFs
Control From
4 RAS FFs
To Next Level
Output BUS
{
Control Signal to
Next Level BUS
• D-FFs may be inserted at the two outputs of
macrocell for multi-cycle scan-out.
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Routing of Decoder Signals in RAS
Address
(log2 √ nff)
Address
(log2 √ nff)
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R
O
W
Flip-Flops
Placed on a
Grid
Structure
D
E
C
O
D
E
R
COLUMN DECODER
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Gate Area Overhead
Gate area overhead of
=
Serial Scan
Gate area overhead of =
Random Access Scan
4n ff
n g 10n ff
6n ff  n ff
ng 10n ff
 100%
 100%
where nff – Number of Flip-Flops
ng – Number of Gates
Assumption: D-FF contains 10 logic gates.
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Gate Area Overhead (Examples)
1. A circuit with 100,000 gates and 5,000 FFs
Gate overhead of serial scan = 13.3 %
Gate overhead of RAS = 20.0 %
(Typical example from an industrial circuit.
Details in later slide)
2. A circuit with 500,000 gates and 5,000 FFs
Gate overhead of serial scan = 3.6 %
Gate overhead of RAS = 5.5 %
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Overhead in Terms of Transistors
Transistor overhead of
=
Serial Scan
Transistor overhead of
=
Random Access Scan
10n ff
nt  28n ff
26n ff
nt  28n ff
 100%
 100%
Where nt is number of transistors in comb. logic.
D-flip-flop (28 transistors), serial scan FF (28+10) and
RAS FF (28+26) were designed in 0.5μ CMOS
technology using Mentor Graphics Design Architect.
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Algorithm to Compact Test
Vectors
• Obtain the combinational vectors along with good
circuit responses and store the results in a stack
• Find the Flip-Flops where the faults are propagated at
each vector
• While number of vectors > 0 or remaining faults > 0
– Read all Flip-Flops where the faults are detected
– Choose the next vector from stack that is at least hamming
distance from current Flip-Flop states
• End While
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Compaction of Test Vectors
Stack
101
000
010
110
111
100
001
100
PI
Address
Inputs
Combinational Circuit
0
RAS-FF
10
RAS-FF
01
RAS-FF
PO
Scan-out
bus
Decoder
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Test Time
600
400
200
Test clock cycles
(thousands)
800
0
s3271
s3384
s5378
s13207
Circuits
Scan
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Test Power
0.1
0.01
Test Power
(Normalized to
serial scan)
1
0.001
s3271
s3384 s5378
Circuits
s13207
Scan
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Case Study on an Industrial Circuit
•
•
A case study on an industry circuit was
performed at Texas Instruments India Pvt. Ltd.
The preliminary results were as follows:
1. The gate area overhead of RAS for a chip with
~5500 Flip-Flops and ~100,000 NAND equivalent
gates was of the order of 18%.
2. 4X reduction in test time was estimated. A speedup of up to 10X was considered possible using
ATPG heuristics.
3. Estimated routing and device area overhead of
RAS in physical layout was 10.4%.
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Conclusion
• New design of a “Toggle” Flip-Flop reduces
the RAS routing overhead.
• Proposed RAS architecture with new FF has
several other advantages:
– Algorithmic minimization reduces test cycles
by 60%.
– Power dissipation during test is reduced by
99%.
• A novel RAS scan-out method presented.
• For details on “Toggle” Flip-Flop, see
Mudlapur et al., VDAT-05.
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Backup Slides
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Thank you!