Kuliah 1 - FCSIT @ UM

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Transcript Kuliah 1 - FCSIT @ UM

Lecture 1
• Basic structure of computer
• History of computer development
Chapter 1
Basic structure of computer
Computer Systems
Is a system that includes computer as one of
its components
Computer Organization
Towards the operation units and
interconnection which realize computer
architecture specification
What is a Computer ?
Electronic device under the instruction and
programming control; and execute four
basic operation
IPOS cycle
IPOS : Input, Processing, Output, Storage
Types of Computer
Special purpose computer
– Eg: Traffic light controller
General purpose computer
– Computer for individual
– Computer for organization
Individual Computer
Professional workstation
Desktop computers
Networked computers (NC)
Notebook computers
Personal Digital Assistants (PDA)/
– Handheld computers/ Palmtop
Computer for Organization
• Supercomputer
– Fastest
– Most expensive
• Mainframe
High speed
More expensive
Process huge amount of data and fast
Support many users
perform server jobs
• Minicomputer
– Performance and speed lesser than mainframe
• Server
Computer Systems
• Hardware
– Physical component of computer such as
mechanical & electronic circuit which can be
• Software
– Program which instructs computer to do
– Consist from bunch of programming, algorithm
and instruction set which can’t be touched
Computer Software
• System software:
– All program related to computer operation
• Eg
– Operating System- Windows 98, Mac OS, Unix,
Linux, MS Dos
– Utility programs –file management
– compiler, interpreter
• Application software
– Program that direct computer to do specific task
• text processing (Microsoft Word), mathematical
operation (Microsoft Excel), database management.
Personal Computer Hardware
• Component inside microcomputer system
Digital & Analog System
• Digital System
- Any system which handle digital signal
• Analog System
• Any system which handle analog signal
4 Basic Functional Unit of a
1. Input Unit
• Computer receive coded information from input where
the function is to read data
• Example of input device: keyboard, joystick, trackball,
2. Output Unit
• Its function is to send processed data to be displayed
• Output device example:
3. Storage Unit
Store program and data in extended period of time
Easy – to find and fetch data swiftly
• Compressed storage
– Diskettes –500 book pages
– Optical Disk –500 books
• Economy
– Save in term of physical storage cost
– Convenient and fast in filing and access data
Storage type
•Magnetic disk storage
•Optical disk
•Magnetic Tape Storage
• Low capacity– small file
• Portable
• Layered with metallic
• Hard plastic jacket for
• 3 ½ inch, 1.44 MB
High Capacity Portable Diskette
• Large file
• Portable
• High capacity
– 120 / 200 MB
– Eg: Superdisk
• Zip disk
– 250 MB
– Not compatible with 3 ½ inch diskette
Hard Disk
• Variety of size (Mb,Gb)
• Portable characteristic
– Generally is not portable
– Portable hard disk is also available
• Hard scrap layered with metallic material
4. Processing Unit
Central Processing Unit (CPU)
Types of Storage
Program execution
Search data inside memory
System Unit
Semiconductor memory
Bus line
Speed and power
Unit Pemprosesan Pusat(CPU)
Central Processing Unit (CPU)
• Change data to information
• Control center
• One set of electronic circuit which execute stored
instruction program
• Two parts
– Control Unit (CU)
– Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU)
Control Unit
• Device which responsile to control
• Instruct computer system to execute
• Communicate with other parts inside a
Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU)
Perrform mathematical operation
Perrform logical operation
Arithmetic Operation
Logical Operation
• Evaluate condition
• Compare
• Can compare
– Numbers
– Characters
– Specialized character
Special purpose
High speed
Temporary storage
Inside CPU
Instruction register
Hold instruction
currently being used
Data register
Hold data which waiting to be
Hold answers from
processing outcome
Types of Storage
• Secondary
– Data which will be used in the end
– Long term
• Main Memory
– Data which will be used in short period of time
– Temporary
– Access faster that secondary storage
• Register
– Data which related to opeation being execute
– Access faster than main memory
Measure storage capacity
KB – kilobyte
• 1024 byte
• diskette
• Cache memory
MB – megabyte
• million byte
GB – gigabyte
• Billion bytes
• Hard disk
• CDs and DVDs
TB – terabytes
• Trillion bytes
• Large hard disk
Primary storage
Primary memory
Main storage
Internal storage
Main memory
Types of memory
Random Access Memory
Read Only Memory
Need electric energy to store data
Not fix
Data and instruction can be read and altered
User always referred to this type of storage
What inside a RAM?
Operating system
Program that’s running
Data needed by the program
Intermediate answer which wait to be
displayed as output
• Fix
• Instruction to start computer
• Data and instuction can be read but can’t be
• Mostly, instruction is written in the factory
Execute Program
• Control unit (CU) received one instruction and placed in
• CU decode the instruction
• CU inform related device to take action
• Control in transferred to related device
• Task executed
• Control returned to CU
Machine Cycle
I-time + E-time
Instruction time (I-time)
• CU fetch one instruction inside memory and place
in one register
• CU decode the instruction and determine the
memory location for the needed data
Machine Cycle
Execution time (E-time)
• Execution
– CU moved data from memory to register in ALU
– ALU is given the control and execute the instruction
– Control is returned to control unit
• CU store operation answer inside memory or
System Clock
• Clock system produced pulse in a fix rate
• Every pulse is one machine cycle
• One instruction program actually might be
consist of a number of instruction to the
• Every CPU instruction will take one pulse
• CPU has one instruction set – instructions
which it can understand and process
Finding data inside a memory
• Each location inside memory have unique address
– Address never change
– Content might change
• Memory location can hold one instruction or one data
• Programmer used symbolic names
Data representation
Binary number system represent
circuit condition
Bit, Byte, Word
– Binary DigIT
– On/off circuit
– 1 or 0
– 8 bit
– Store one alphanumeric character
– 01001010 = J
– Register size
– Number of BIT processed by CPU in one unit
– Differ from one computer to another computer (64bit/8
Coding Scheme
• One code to determine which bit group representing which
character on keyboard
– Use one byte (8-bit)
– 28 = 256 combination or character
– Almost all PC and larger computer
– Use one byte (8-bit)
– 28 = 256 combination or character
– Used mainly on IBM compatible mainframes
• Unicode
Use two bytes 8-bit (16 bits)
216 = 65,536 combination or character
Support character for all language in the world
Compatible with ASCII
System Unit
• Store electronic component
– Main board
– Storage device
– Interconnection
• A number of Apple Macintosh have system unit in
its monitor
System Unit
Main Board
• Microprocessor chip
• Memory chip
• Interconnection to other
device’s parts
• Additional chip mathematical processor
System Unit
Storage Device
Hard Drive
Disk Drive
CD-ROM Drive
CPU etched on chip
One chip is ¼ x ¼ inci
Consist of silicon
Consist of million gates
– Electric switch that allows electric supply to flow
Microprocesor’s Component
Control Unit - CU
Arithmetic Logic Unit – ALU
System clock
Development of a better microprocessor
• Microprocessor computer print circuit on
– Cheaper
– Faster
• Perform other device task
– Current mathematical co-processor is part of
– Current multimedia instruction is part of
Development of a better microprocessor
More functions combined in one
• Faster computer execution
• Cheaper it is made
• More reliable
Types of Microprocessor
Compatible Intel
• Pentium
• Celeron
• Xeon and Itanium
• Cyrix
Types of Microprocessor
• PowerPC
– Collabration of Apple, IBM, and Motorola
– Used in Apple Macintosh PC group
– Inside server and additional system
• Alpha
– Produced by Compaq
– High power server and workstation
Semiconductor memory
Low cost
Low power consumption
Economically produced in bulk
Not fix
All circuit together become one storage unit that
can’t be separated
Semiconductor memory CMOS
• Complementary metal oxide semiconductor
• Use low electric supply
• Used inside PC to store device control
needed to start a computer
• Store information using power from battery
• Store instruction and data for current
• Data inside memory can be randomly
• Easy and fast access
• Not fix
• Can be erased
• Able to be Rewrite
Types of RAM
SRAM (Static RAM)
• Store content when power exist
• Faster than DRAM
Types of RAM
DRAM (dynamic RAM)
• Must always refresh
• Used in most PC memory because of size and cost
– Faster than DRAM
• Rambus DRAM
– Faster than SDRAM
– Expensive
Adding RAM
Buy memory module packaged on circuit board
SIMMS – chip on one side
DIMMS – chip on two sides
Maximum RAM that can be installed is based on
main board design
• Program and data that has been permanently
recorded in factory
• Read only
• Can’t be changed by user
• Store start computer routine which is
activated when computer is switched on
• Fix
• Programmable ROM
• ROM burner can change instruction on
some ROM chip
Bus Line
• Path which transfer electric signal
• Bus system
– Transfer data between CPU and memory
• Bas width
– Bit data numbers which can carried at one time
– Most of the time the same size woth CPU word
• Speed is measured in MHz
Bus Line
Larger bus width
More powerful computer
CPU can transfer more
data at one time
Faster computer
More memory can be
CPU can refer larger
CPU can support more and variety of instruction
Expansion Bus
• Connect main board to expansion slot
• Attach expansion board to slot
– Interface card
– Changeable card
• External connection/port
– Serial
– Parallel
Expansion Bus
Bus and PC Port
Slow device like mouse and modem
Fast device like hard disk and network card
Connect memmory and graphic card to present faster video
Support “daisy-chaining” eliminate the needs to have variety
type of expansion card; hot change
IEEE 1394
High speed bus connects video device with computer
PC Card
Credit card size PC card devices mostly found in laptop
Speed and power
What make computer fast?
Microprocssor speed
Bus line size
Flash memory
RISC type computer
Parallel processing
Computer processing speed
Time to executer one instruction
• Millisecond
• Microsecond
• Nanosecond
– Modern Computer
• Picosecond
– In the future
Computer processing speed
• Clock speed
– Megahertz (MHz)
– Gigahertz (GHz)
• Number of instruction per second
• Million Instruction per Second (MIPS)
• Complex mathematic operation
– One million operation floating point per second
(Megaflop )
• Small memory block and temporary
• Accelerate data transfer
• Always used recent instruction and data
Step 1
ask data or
Step 3
Transfer to main CPU and cache
Step 2
Go to address in main
memory and read
The next processor ask
• See first in cache
• Go to memory
Types of Cache
• Internal Cache
– Level 1 (L1)
– Embed in microprocessor
– Up to 128KB
• External Cache
Level 2 (L2)
External chip
256KB or 512 KB
SRAM technology
Cheaper and slower than L1
Faster and more expensive than memory
Flash memory
• RAM that is not change
• Used in
Mobile phone
Digital camera
Digital music recorder
Instruction set
• CISC Technology
• Complex Instruction Set Computing
– Conventional computer
– A lot of the instruction is not used
• RISC Technology
• Reduce Instruction Set Computing
– Small instruction subset
– Increase speed
– Program with a number of complex instruction
• Graphic
• Engineering
Types of processing
• Serial processing
– Executer one instruction at one time
– Fetch, decode, execute and store
• Parallel Processing
– More than one processor used simultaneously
– Can do trillion floating point per second teraflops
– Example: Network server, supercomputer
Types of Processing
• Pipelining
– instruction do not need to finish before the next is
– Fetch instruction 1, start to decode and fetch
instruction 2