Low Power Processor --

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Transcript Low Power Processor --

Low Power Processor
--- For Mobile Devices
Ziwei Zheng
Wenjia Ouyang
Agenda
• Introduction
• Roadmap
• The trend during past years
• The recent technologies
• Future
User Experience Perspective
For Low Power Mobile Devices:
• Active time of the device
o Time interval of performing a well defined set of
tasks (defined use mode: audio play , voice call,
web browsing, video playback, etc ) between
two battery charges
• Standby time of the device
o Time interval between two battery charges
when the device is fully functional ready to be
activated, but does not perform any user driven
tasks.
What kind of processors are
available for mobile devices?
• Qualcomm Snapdragon
o Nokia Lumia 635
• Samsung Exynos
o Samsung Galaxy S4
• MediaTek
o Lenovo
• NVIDIA's Tegra
• Intel
• Cortex
•
Reference:Bohr, Mark, and Kaizad Mistry. "Intel’s revolutionary 22 nm transistor technology."
Rob Willoner at Innovation (2011).
Roadmap--Intel
Reference:Bohr, Mark, and Kaizad Mistry. "Intel’s revolutionary 22 nm transistor technology." Rob
Willoner at Innovation (2011).
Roadmap--ARM
Reference: ARM Roadmap MWC 2013
http://forwardthinking.pcmag.com/none/310089-mobile-chip-makers-the-basic-building-blocks
Power Consumption in
Digital Systems
• Ptotal=Pactive+Pleakage
• Pactive = Pinternal + Pswitching
= Pinternal + αCV2f
•
•
V – voltage
f – frequency
C – capacitive load
α – activity factor
• Pleakage= static power
• Pleakage ———— Intel: High-K & Tri-Gate
• Pactive
• Pactive
• Pactive
———— Symmetric multiprocessing
———— Nvidia vSMP
———— Qualcomm aSMP
9
Intel: High-K Metal Gate
• Intel introduced a High-K Metal Gate technology in 2007 for 45nm
transistors, to create transistor gate of lower leakage current.
o
o
Further reduction in the thickness of the layer
Silicon dioxide was replaced with a thin layer of material which
has a high level of dielectric k.
Reference: Kamata, Yoshiki. "High-k/Ge MOSFETs for future nanoelectronics." Materials today 11.1 (2008): 30-38.
• High-K dielectric reduces
leakage substantially.
o less unwanted current flow
o easier manufacturing process
Intel: Tri-gate Technology
• Recently Intel announced production of a new transistor
technology called “3D Tri-Gate” that incorporated a three
dimensional structure.
•
3D Tri-Gate transistors enable chips to operate at lower voltage with
lower leakage.
• Driven by the need for higher onoff speeds and reduced power
consumption, planar transistor size
had been reduced to nanometer.
• Growing leakage currents from
gate to channel.
• Form conducting channels on three
sides of a vertical fin structure.
• The gate wraps around source and
drain “fins” that protrude upward.
• Multiple fins connected together to
increase total drive strength for
higher performance
• Increased surface area between
gate and the inversion layer
significantly improve gate control.
Current-Voltage
Characteristics
• Tri-Gate transistors provide a steeper subthreshold slope that reduces leakage current
•
Reference:Bohr, Mark, and Kaizad Mistry. "Intel’s revolutionary 22 nm transistor
technology." Rob Willoner at Innovation (2011).
• Pleakage ———— Intel: High-K & Tri-Gate
• Pactive
• Pactive
• Pactive
———— Symmetric multiprocessing
———— Nvidia vSMP
———— Qualcomm aSMP
15
Symmetric
multiprocessing (SMP)
• Symmetric multiprocessor system hardware and
software architecture where two or more identical
processors connect to a single, shared main
memory.
• Each processor ave full access to all I/O devices,
and are controlled by a single operating system
instance that treats all processors equally, reserving
none for special purposes.
• Most multiprocessor systems today use an SMP
architecture.
16
Symmetric
multiprocessing (SMP)
• SMP systems shared Main Memory, usually each
processor has an associated private cache to
speed-up the MM data access and to reduce the
system bus traffic.
17
• Pleakage ———— Intel: High-K & Tri-Gate
• Pactive
• Pactive
• Pactive
———— Symmetric multiprocessing
———— Nvidia vSMP
———— Qualcomm aSMP
18
Nvidia
Tegra 3
• Variable Symmetric Multiprocessing
19
Tegra 3: “companion” core
The goal is for a mobile phone or tablet to be
able to power down all the normal cores and
run on only the companion core, using
comparatively little power, during standby
mode.
The companion core is
manufactured with a special
low power silicon process,
that uses less power at low
clock rate but does not scale
well to high clock rates.
Active Standby mode
• "Companion" core, which will handle low frequency
tasks in the background.
• Each of the five, count them, five, not four, five cores
are identical ARM Cortex A9 CPUs, each of them
enabled and disables via aggressive power gating
based on work load. (aka when they're needed,
they're fired up.)
• First four cores are not aware of the fifth, but
automatically take advantage of it - this saving both
software efforts and new coding requirements as it
flows.
21
Optimized For Key
Mobile Use Cases
• 80% of time in active standby state
• 20% of time in intensive mobile application
• Think about your device sitting in your pocket as
“Active Standby”.
• Processor is either running background tasks or low
performance applications that do not require user
interactions.
• Example: receive notification, send information to
server.
22
Power Consumption
• Why combine fast process technologies and low
power process technologies?
• Transistors on fast process technologies
• consume high leakage power
• very fast switching times
• normal voltage levels
• Transistors on low power process technologies
• low leakage power
• slower switching times
• low voltage levels
23
Power Consumption
•
Reference: nvidia white paper Variable SMP – A Multi-Core CPU Architecture for Low
Power and High Performance
24
Power Advantage
• 4 + 1 Cores
• Low Power Companion Core
•
Reference: nvidia white paper Variable SMP – A Multi-Core CPU Architecture for Low Power and High
Performance
Summary
• Variable Symmetric Multiprocessing(vSMP) not only
minimized active standby state power consumption,
but also delivers on-demand maximum four core
performance.
• In addition to four main high-performance CPU
cores, nvidia has a fifth low power, low leakage CPU
core called ‘Companion’ CPU core that is optimized
to minimize active standby state power
consumption, and handle less demanding
processing tasks.
26
• Pleakage ———— Intel High-K Metal Gate
• Pactive
• Pactive
• Pactive
———— Symmetric multiprocessing
———— Nvidia vSMP
———— Qualcomm aSMP
27
Qualcomm
Snapdragon 800
•
asynchronous SMP (aSMP) design.
•
Unlike synchronous SMP designs where all
cores must run at the same frequency and
voltage when operational, the
asynchronous SMP power design provides
independent clocking and voltage per
core, allowing each to work
independently.
Asynchronous SMP
(aSMP)
29
Asynchronous SMP
(aSMP)
• Provides Highly efficient design this substantial power
savings by intelligently adjusting Technology over
Traditional SMP performance to suit the needs of the
Application.
• Asynchronous SMP is a sort of dynamic power
sensing chip architecture that automatically applies
different voltages to each of the four cores
depending require computing loads and this control
peak performance per core. When a core performs
a less important and low computing load
requirement jobs, it inputs low voltages to make the
best use of power budget.
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vSMP vs aSMP
• vSMP has more cores meaning extra area.
• vSMP requires more software customize meaning
limited market.
• aSMP may consume same power as vSMP as long as
has aSMP has better design.
• Qualcomm has other saving power technology.
31
Future Trend: The Next Step
• Smaller transistor size
• Multi-core:
o Quad-core to Oct-core and Hex-core
Let’s Look Out to Decades
• 3D chip stacking technology:
o keeping a signal on-chip can reduce its
power consumption.
o Shorter wires reduce power consumption by
producing less parasitic capacitance.
Questions?
Thanks