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• Mean Time Between Failures
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History of computing hardware - Second generation: transistors
1
Problems with the reliability of early
batches of point contact and alloyed
junction transistors meant that the
machine's mean time between
failures was about 90 minutes, but this
improved once the more reliable
bipolar junction transistors became
available.
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Time-multiplexed optical shutter - General features
1
Mean time between failures: The first
components it is expected to fail in a
TMOS technology is the illumination
system. LEDs usually have 100,000
hours MTBF under continuous
operation; as TMOS uses LEDs at 1/3
duty cycle, the maximum expected
MTBF is 300,000 hours.
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Time-multiplexed optical shutter - Advantages
1
Mean Time Between Failures: TMOS life
could achieve 300,000 hours, overcoming
the 10,000 hours of OLED, 30,000 of
plasma displays, 40,000 hours of CTRS
and the 100,000 hours of LCD.
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Parallel computing - Application checkpointing
1
As a computer system grows in complexity, the
mean time between failures usually decreases
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Service-level agreement
1
In this case the SLA will typically have a
technical definition in terms of mean time
between failures (MTBF), mean time to
repair or mean time to recovery (MTTR);
various data rates; throughput; jitter; or
similar measurable details.
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Solar micro-inverter - Micro-inverters
1
Mean time between failures (MTBF) are
quoted in hundreds of
years.[http://www.enphaseenergy.com/do
wnloads/Enphase_M190_Datasheet.pdf
Enphase Microinverter M190], Enphase
Energy
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Life expectancy
The term life expectancy may also be
used in the context of manufactured
objects although the related term shelf life
is used for consumer products and the
terms mean time to breakdown (MTTB)
and Mean time between failures|mean
time before failures (MTBF) are used in
engineering.
1
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Parallel programming - Application checkpointing
1
As a computer system grows in complexity, the
mean time between failures usually decreases
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Ssd - Flash-based SSDs
These applications require the
exceptional mean time between
failures (MTBF) rates that solid-state
drives achieve, by virtue of their
ability to withstand extreme shock,
vibration and temperature ranges.
1
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Computer power supply - Life span
1
Life span is usually measured in mean
time between failures (MTBF). Higher
MTBF ratings are preferable for longer
device life and reliability. Quality
construction consisting of industrial
grade electrical components or a larger
or higher speed fan can help to
contribute to a higher MTBF rating by
keeping critical components cool.
Overheating is a major cause of PSU
failure. Calculated MTBF value of
100,000 hours (about 11 years of
continuous operation) is fairly common.
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Maintenance, repair, and operations - MRO software
**Reliability data: Mean time between
failures|MTBF, MTTB (mean time to
breakdown), MTBR (mean time between
removals),
1
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Glossary of fuel cell terms - Mean time between failures
1
: Mean time between failures (MTBF)
is the mean (average) time between
failures of a system, and is often
attributed to the useful life of the
device i.e. not including 'infant
mortality' or 'end of life' if the device
is not repairable.
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Service life
Service life is different from a
predicted life, or MTBF|MTTF/MTBF
(Mean Time to Failure/Mean Time
Between Failures)/Maintenance-free
operating period|MFOP
(maintenance-free operating period)
1
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Service-level agreement
1
In this case the SLA will typically have
a technical definition in terms of
MTBF|mean time between failures
(MTBF), mean time to repair or mean
time to recovery (MTTR); various data
rates; throughput; jitter; or similar
measurable details.
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Pump - Pump repairs
1
Examining pump repair records and MTBF
(mean time between failures) is of great
importance to responsible and
conscientious pump users
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Ring laser gyroscope - Description
Many tens of thousands of RLGs are
operating in inertial navigation systems
and have established high accuracy, with
better than 0.01°/hour bias uncertainty,
and mean time between failures in excess
of 60,000 hours.
1
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Functional safety - Achieving Functional Safety
1
4. Verification that the system meets the
assigned SIL, Automotive Safety
Integrity Level|ASIL, PL or agPL by
determining the Mean Time Between
Failures and the Safe Failure Fraction
(SFF), along with appropriate tests. The
Safe Failure Fraction is the probability of
the system failing in a safe state: the
dangerous (or critical) state states are
identified from a Failure Mode and
Effects Analysis or (Failure Mode,
Effects, and Criticality Analysis) of the
system (FMEA or FMECA).
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Fault-tolerant system - Examples
1
Hardware fault-tolerance sometimes requires
that broken parts can be taken out and
replaced with new parts while the system is
still operational (in computing known as hot
swapping). Such a system implemented with
a single backup is known as 'single point
tolerant', and represents the vast majority of
fault-tolerant systems. In such systems the
mean time between failures should be long
enough for the operators to have time to fix
the broken devices (mean time to repair)
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Logistic engineering
Logistics engineers work with complex
mathematical models that consider
elements such as mean time between
failures (MTBF), mean time to failure
(MTTF), mean time to repair (MTTR),
failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA),
statistical distributions, queueing theory,
and a host of other considerations
1
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SCADA - Operational philosophy
The reliability of such systems can be
calculated statistically and is stated as the
mean time to failure, which is a variant of
Mean Time Between Failures (MTBF)
1
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Monte Carlo method - Engineering
1
* In reliability engineering, one can use
Monte Carlo simulation to generate mean
time between failures and mean time to
repair for components.
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High availability - System design for high availability
Zero downtime system design means
that modeling and simulation indicates
mean time between failures significantly
exceeds the period of time between
planned maintenance, upgrade events,
or system lifetime. Zero downtime
involves massive redundancy, which is
needed for some types of aircraft and for
most kinds of communications satellite.
Global Positioning System is an example
of a zero downtime system.
1
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Data corruption - Overview
1
Hardware and software failure are the
two main causes for data loss.
Background radiation, head crashes,
and Mean time between
failures|aging or wear of the storage
device fall into the former category,
while software failure typically occurs
due to Software bug|bugs in the code.
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Commodity hardware
1
At some point, the number of discrete systems in a
cluster will be greater than the mean time between
failures (MTBF) for any hardware platform, no
matter how reliable, so fault tolerance must be
built into the controlling
software.http://www.morganclaypool.com/doi/abs/
10.2200/S00193ED1V01Y200905CAC006http://in
sidehpc.com/2008/06/02/google-fellow-shedssome-light-on-infrastructure-robustness-in-face-offailure Purchases should be optimized on costper-unit-of-performance, not just absolute
performance-per-CPU at any cost.
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Eight dimensions of quality - Reliability
This dimension reflects the probability of a
product malfunctioning or failing within a
specified time period. Among the most
common measures of reliability are the mean
time to first failure, the mean time between
failures, and the failure rate per unit time.
Because these measures require a product to
be in use for a specified period, they are
more relevant to durable goods than to
products and services that are consumed
instantly.
1
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Failure rate
1
In practice, the mean time between
failures (MTBF, 1/λ) is often reported
instead of the failure rate
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Balanced Automatics Recoil System - Direct impingement
1
These combined factors reduce service
life of these parts, reliability, and mean
time between failures.Major Thomas P
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AirPort Time Capsule - Features
Apple states that the Hitachi Deskstar
meets or exceeds the 1 million hours
mean time between failures (MTBF)
recommendation for server-grade hard
drives.[http://db.tidbits.com/article/9479
Time Capsule Ships with Support for USB
Drive Backups]
1
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Entry-Level Power Supply Specification - Life span
1
Life span is usually specified in mean time
between failures (MTBF), where higher
MTBF ratings indicate longer device life
and better reliability. Using higher quality
electrical components at less than their
maximum ratings or providing better
cooling can contribute to a higher MTBF
rating because lower stress and lower
operating temperatures decrease
component failure rates.
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Mean time between failure
1
'Mean time between failures (MTBF)'
is the predicted elapsed time between
inherent failures of a system during
operation.Jones, James V., Integrated
Logistics Support Handbook, page 4.2
MTBF can be calculated as the
arithmetic mean (average) time
between failures of a system
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Lambda - Lower-case letter λ
* Lambda denotes the failure rate of
devices and systems in reliability theory,
and it is measured in failure events per
hour. Numerically, this lambda is also the
reciprocal of the mean time between
failures.
1
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Reliability, availability and serviceability (computer hardware) - Definitions
1
Reliability can be characterized in terms of
mean time between failures (MTBF), with
reliability = exp(-t/MTBF).
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M60 machine gun - M60E2
1
This version achieved a mean time between failures
of 1,669 during testing in the 1970s..
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Life Expectancy Index
1
The term that is known as life expectancy
is most often used in the context of
human populations, but is also used in
plant or animal ecology; life tables (also
known as actuary|actuarial tables). The
term life expectancy may also be used in
the context of manufactured objects,
although the related term shelf life is used
for consumer products and the terms
mean time to breakdown (MTTB) and
mean time between failures (MTBF) are
used in engineering.
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Run Book Automation - Runbook Automation
1
According to Gartner, the growth of RBA
has coincided with the need for IT
operations executives to enhance IT
operations efficiency measures—including
reducing mean time to repair (MTTR),
increasing mean time between failures
(MTBF), and automating provisioning of
Information technology|IT resources
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Manchester computers - Transistor Computer
1
Problems with the reliability of early
batches of transistors meant that the
machine's mean time between
failures was about 90 minutes, which
improved once the more reliable
Bipolar junction transistor|junction
transistors became available
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Peltier cooler - Construction
1
* Has a long life, with mean time between
failures (MTBF) exceeding 100,000 hours
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Commodity server
1
At some point, the number of discrete systems in a
cluster will be greater than the mean time between
failures (MTBF) for any hardware platform, no
matter how reliable, so fault tolerance must be
built into the controlling
software.http://www.morganclaypool.com/doi/abs/
10.2200/S00193ED1V01Y200905CAC006http://in
sidehpc.com/2008/06/02/google-fellow-shedssome-light-on-infrastructure-robustness-in-face-offailure Purchases should be optimized on costper-unit-of-performance, not just absolute
performance-per-CPU at any cost.
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Mean time to repair
1
MTTR is often part of a maintenance
contract, where a system whose MTTR
is 24 hours is generally more valuable
than for one of 7 days if mean time
between failures is equal, because its
Operational Availability is higher.
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Synchronizer
* In electronics, whenever there is signal
transfer between two systems operating at
different frequencies or same frequency with
different phases, synchronizer block is used
as an interface so that signal from transmitter
block is reliably interpreted by the receiver.
The block usually uses metastable hardened
flops offering single or double latency delays
at the output. This block ensures that there is
no metastability for a target MTBF i.e., Mean
Time Between Failures
1
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Fault tolerant system - Examples
1
In such systems the mean time between
failures should be long enough for the
operators to have time to fix the broken
devices (mean time to repair) before the
backup also fails
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Passenger car (rail) - Kawasaki
Kawasaki Heavy Industries|Kawasaki has
been manufacturing passenger rail cars at its
facility in Lincoln, Nebraska since 2001.
Kawasaki's Lincoln plant has manufactured
rail cars for MBTA, NYCT, PATH, MNR with
cars that have led the way with the industry's
best MTBF (Mean Time Between Failures).
Kawasaki Rail Car was the first American rail
car manufacturer to achieve the International
Organization for Standardization ISO-9002
certification.
1
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Water pump - Pump repairs
1
Examining pump repair records and
mean time between failures (MTBF) is
of great importance to responsible
and conscientious pump users
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M109 howitzer - M109 KAWEST
New electrical system increases
reliability (better than Mil STD 1245A,
higher operational readiness,
increased mean time between
failures, fault-finding diagnostics with
test equipment.)
1
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Hard disk failure - Causes
1
HDD manufacturers typically specify
a MTBF|Mean Time Between Failures
or an Annualized Failure Rate (AFR)
which are population statistics that
can not predict the behavior of an
individual unit
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Hard disk failure - Metrics of failures
1
The mean time between failures (MTBF)
of SATA drives is usually specified to
be about 1.2million hours (some drives
such as Western Digital Raptor have
rated 1.4million hours MTBF), while
SAS/FC drives are rated for upwards of
1.6million hours
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Charging handle
One issue is the mean
time between failures due
to metal fatigue
1
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Life expectancy at birth
1
Life expectancy is also used in plant
or animal ecology; life tables (also
known as actuary|actuarial tables).
The term life expectancy may also be
used in the context of manufactured
objects, although the related term
shelf life is used for consumer
products and the terms mean time to
breakdown (MTTB) and mean time
between failures (MTBF) are used in
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Water turbine - Time line
Around 1890, the modern fluid
bearing was invented, now universally
used to support heavy water turbine
spindles. As of 2002, fluid bearings
appear to have a mean time between
failures of more than 1300 years.
1
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Direct impingement - Evaluation
1
These combined factors reduce service
life of these parts, reliability, and mean
time between failures.Major Thomas P
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