Communicate - Shelton State Community College

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Transcript Communicate - Shelton State Community College

Communicate
Communicating Nonverbally
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Upward of 60% of meaning in any social
situation is communicated nonverbally
(Burgoon & Bacue, 2003)
Others believe 93% of meaning is communicated
nonverbally (Mehabian, 1972) (page 68)
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A Closer look at these percentages:
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The importance of the verbal to the nonverbal was
determined by the use of only 37 subjects, who were female
University of California undergraduates participating in the
study as partial fulfillment of introductory psychology course
requirements.
“The specific percentages are not important; rather, what is
important is that you recognize how essential nonverbal cues
are to us as we interpret what we think people mean" (Brilhart
and Galanes (1989) p. 138).
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Characteristics of Nonverbal
Communication
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Nonverbal communication is inevitable (page 68)
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Nonverbal communication is the primary
conveyor of our emotions (page 68)
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Identity management
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Define relationships
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Convey emotions that we may be unwilling to express
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Characteristics of Nonverbal
Communication
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Nonverbal communication is multichanneled
(page 68)
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Nonverbal communication is ambiguous (page 68)
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“Superior Customer Service”
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Decoding ability increases with age and training
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Influences on Nonverbal
Communication
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Culture
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Gender
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Cultural Variations
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In Japan, people gaze at Adam’s apple and avoid direct eye contact
(Samovar, Porter, McDaniel (2009) - page 70)
Native American, Latin American, Caribbean, and African cultures
see direct gazes as disrespectful (page 68)
Arabs look intently into the person’s eyes
OK sign is a vulgar gesture in Germany and Brazil, means “your
worth zero” in France and Belgium, sexual invitation is Greece and
Turkey, “I’ll kill you” in Tunisia (page 69)
South and Central America and Southern Europe encourage contact
in touching (Neuliep, 2006 – page 71)
Asian cultures are low-contact (page 71)
People from the Middle East stand much closer
(Hall,
1969), (Warnecke, Masters, Kempter, 1992)
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Cultural Variations cont.
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Arabs speak with great deal of volume to convey strength and sincerity
(Samovar, Porter, McDaniel, 2009 – page 72)
Britain and Asian cultures prefer soft voices (Samovar, Porter, McDaniel,
2009 – page 72)
Western Cultures / Individualistic (US) require more space than
collectivist cultures (Asia) (Samovar, Porter, McDaniel, 2009 – page 75)
Western Cultures are more time conscious (Hall, 1959 – page 75)
Mexican culture doesn’t specify an exact time (page 75)
(Hall, 1969), (Warnecke, Masters, Kempter, 1992)
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Gender
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Link between smiling and levels of the male
testosterone (Cashdan, 1995)
Women are more accurate at interpreting nonverbal
signals
Women tend to play more often with their hair
and/or clothing and tap their fingers (Pearson, Turner, West,
1995 – page 69)
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Women have more frequent eye contact (Cegala, Sillars,
1989 – page 1989)
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Women are more accurate at interpreting nonverbal
(Argyle, 1988), (JA Hall, 1979), (JA Hall, 2006), (JA Hall & Horgan, 2001)
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Gender cont.
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Touch? Who touches more? Why? (page 71)
Women are more vocally expressive, high pitched,
softer in volume (page 72)
Women stand at closer distances
Women face conversational partners
Men have more expansive gestures
Men require more space
Women are better at detecting lies (Buller & Burgoon, 1994),
(McCornack & Parks, 1990)
(Argyle, 1988), (JA Hall, 1979), (JA Hall, 2006), (JA Hall & Horgan, 2001)
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Deceiving
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Actors, Lawyers, diplomats and salespeople
are more successful at deception (Riggio & Freeman,
1983)
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Coin toss has a better outcome? (Feeley & Young,
1998)
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Types of Nonverbal Communication
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Posture and Gesture (Kinesics)
Face and Eyes
Touch (Haptics)
Voice (Paralanguage)
Space (Proxemics)
Territoriality
Environment
Time (Chronemics)
Physical Attractiveness
Clothing
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Kinesics (page 69)
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Career Counselors use “posture echoes” (Maurer
& Tindall, 1983)
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Rapists use postural clues to select victims
Detecting status based on posture
Manipulators
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Face and Eyes (page 70)
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Talkers hold eye contact about 40% of the
time
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Listeners hold eye contact about 70% of the
time
(Knapp & Hall, 2006 and page 69)
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Face and Eyes (page 70)
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Smiling cocktail waitresses earn larger tips
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Pupils grow larger in proportion to degree of interest
- Arab merchant noticed pupil of customer (Hess & Plott,
1960)
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Emotional Contagion (Hinsz & Tomhave, 1991)
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Facial expressions are hard to read because of speed
which they change and the many different emotions
displayed
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Paralanguage (page 71)
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Pitch, Volume, Rate, Quality, Intonation,
Vocalized pauses
Listeners pay more attention to vocal
messages than words being spoken
Communicators are most likely to comply
with requests delivered by speakers whose
rate is similar to their own (Buller & Kane, 1992)
Those who speak loudly & without hesitation
are viewed as more confident
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Haptics (page 71)
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Children “wasted away” in orphanages in
nineteenth and early twentieth centuries
Increases child’s mental functioning and
physical health (Montagu, 1972 and Yarrow, 1963 and others…)
70% who were touch complied, 40% of
untouched complied (dime study) (Kleinke, 1977 and
Willis & Hamm, 1980)
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Larger tips & alcohol consumption for waiters
and waitresses (Crusco & Wetzel, 1984)
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Physical Appearance (page 76)
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Endomorph (round and heavy)
Mesomorph (muscular and strong)
Ectomorph (lean with little muscle)
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Physical Appearance (page 76)
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Posture, gestures, facial expressions and other behaviors
increase attractiveness
Women who are perceived as attractive have more dates,
higher grades in college, persuade males with greater ease,
receive lighter court sentences (Knapp & Hall, 1992)
Shorter men have more difficulty finding jobs (Adler & Rodman)
Men over 6’2” receive salaries at 12.4% higher
Children as young as 3 agree on attraction
Attractive students are seen as more intelligent, friendly, and
popular (Abdala, Knapp, Theune, 2002)
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Clothing and Personal Grooming
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Clothing and Personal Grooming (page 76)
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Uniforms influence pedestrians to pick up litter
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Solicitors wearing sheriff’s and nurse’s uniforms increase
level of contributions to law enforcement and health care
campaigns (Lawerence & Watson, 1991)
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83% of pedestrians followed jay-walker dressed in higherstatus clothing - 48% of pedestrians followed jay-walker
dressed in lower-status clothing
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Women wearing a suit and jacket are rated more powerful
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Feminine clothing is decorative, masculine clothing is
functional (Wood, 2007 and page 79)
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Chronemics (page 75)
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American teacher discovered cultural
differences in time when teaching at college
in Brazil
How do we view time?
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Physical Space / Territory (page 74)
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Grant people with higher status more personal
territory
We assume ownership to the parts of physical
space we occupy (page 74)
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Environment
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Researchers showed 99 students slides of the
interior of 12 upper-middle-class homes
Professors with well-decorated offices were
more credible
Removing a doctor’s desk makes patients feel
almost 5 times more at ease
Arrangement of desks in a classroom
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