The Rise of Islam 600-1200 - Sonoma Valley High School

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Transcript The Rise of Islam 600-1200 - Sonoma Valley High School

The Rise of Islam 600-1200
Arabian Peninsula Before Muhammad
• Most Arabs Settled /
Nomads a minority
– Caravan cities caused
interaction between
Byzantine / Sasanid
Empires & Ethiopia
• Nomadic Religion =
Polytheistic
– Familiar with Judaism,
Christianity & Zoroast.
• Mecca = Caravan City
– Between Yemen & Syria
– Ka’ba = Cubical Shrine
w/idols inside
Muhammad & Foundation of Islam
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•
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Orphan born in Mecca
– Involved in the caravan trade
The ‘Final Prophet’
– In 610CE received revelations
Submission to God = Salvation
– 622 fled to Medina / Formed a
single community of believers
(umma)
The Succession of the Caliph
– Abu Bakr (Father-in-law)
• Standardization: 5 Pillars &
Creation of an Islamic State
– Civil War over 3rd Caliphate = 3
Rival Sects
• Sunnis= Abu Bakr
• Shi’ites=Ali (Muhammad’s
son-in-law & 1st cousin)
• Kharijite (Militant followers
of Ali)
The Rise & Fall of the Caliphate 6321258
• Period of Islamic Conquests 634-711
– Religious fanaticism, weakness of enemies, talent of
Muslim leaders and camel cavalry!
• Umayyad & Abbasid Caliphates 661-850
– Arab Empire (not a Muslim Empire), ruled from
Damascus, Syria
– Umayyad Overthrown 750 w/ help of Shi’ites.
– Abbasid Caliphate 750-1258 (family of Abbas,
Muhammad’s cousin).
– Cultural Center of Baghdad, Golden Age of literature &
science. Non-Arab conversion in cosmopolitan centers.
• Political Fragmentation 850-1050 (Mamluks grew in
power), too diverse of a region to hold under Arab rule as
Islam spread.
• Attacks = Christian Crusades, Turkish & Mongol Invasions
(Mongols killed final Caliph in 1258)
Islamic Civilization
• Islamic Law = Shari’a
– Based on collections of
reports known as Hadith
• Conversion & Urbanization
were related
• Great Achievements in
Medicine & Astronomy
• Women= Supposed to live as
Khadija & Fatima
• Inherit & own prop.
• Divorce & Remarry
• Testify in Court
• Pilgrimage